Chapter 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (31):
1

What are corporations?

A way of organising people to produce goods and services

2

3 features of a corporation?

-owners not necessarily managers (executive members are both managers and owners)
-can be closely held (family) or widely (public)
-limited liability (unlike partnerships)

3

What does limited liability mean?

Investors can only lose what they invest, done to encourage investment

4

See rest of L1 intro stuff

now

5

See example at top of CH13 notes

now

6

Explain the difference between financing and investment decisions?

Investment decisions are simpler (F decisions have lots of different strategies), F decisions are easier

7

Why are financing decisions easier? (2)

-Less degree of finality (easier to reverse)
-Difficult to make money by F strategies due to higher competitiveness tf not looking for a positive NPV

8

Explain why markets are considered efficient?

Prices of stocks appear to follow a random walk (ie. successive changes in value are independent) tf odds of going up or down are the same day-day

9

Why is there no day-day trend in stock markets?

As soon as cycles/trends are recognised by investors, they buy(/sell) until the price is pushed up(/down) tf eliminating the trend, tf stock once again offers normal risk-adjusted rate of return

10

What would happen if past prices -> prediction of future prices?

->easy profits which can't happen in a competitive market tf ALL (not just price) info will be reflected in today's prices, not tomorrow's tf RW tf market efficiency

11

What is weak market efficiency and what is its implication?

When prices reflect information contained in record of past prices
Makes it impossible to make consistent SNP (RW)

12

What is semistrong market efficiency and what is its implication?

Prices reflect not only all info in past prices, but also all other public information
Prices respond immediately to the release of public information (eg. merger proposal)

13

What is strong market efficiency and what is its implication?

Prices reflect all info regarding analysis of company, economy etc (public +private info)
Will find lucky and unlucky investors but no one who can consistently profit off market

14

Read iii top of page 1 side 2

shows need to account for market movements

15

What does figure 13.4 show regarding takeover announcements?

Shows stock price jumps on day of announcement then is normal again
May drift up before if investors are expecting a takeover

16

Define takeover premium?

The difference between the estimated real value of a a company and the price paid to acquire it

17

How often according to 13.5 do mutual funds beat the markets?

Roughly 40% of the time

18

Define risk adjusted return?

Measure of an investment's return by measuring how much risk is involved

19

In an efficient market what is it not possible to do? What does this mean for securities?

Not possible to find EXPECTED returns greater (or less) than the risk-adjusted opportunity cost of capital. This means securities trade at their fundamental value, based on future cash flows (C(t)) and opportunity cost of capital (r)

20

2 pieces of evidence against market efficiency?

1) Earnings announcement puzzle
2) New issue puzzle

21

Explain what the earnings announcement puzzle is?

Looking at stock performance from 1972-2001, top 10% of firms with best news on earnings only outperform those with the worst news by about 1%/month. This implies the market is 'slow' to react and tf takes time for investors to be fully aware of the significance (?)

22

Explain what the new issue puzzle is?

IPOs often see buyers get an immediate capital gain, however these often don't hold up in the LR

23

What is the constant-growth formula used for?

Checking if shares are fairly valued

Shows that a small reduction in growth rate of dividends can lead to a large reduction in the present value of stocks

24

What are bubbles?

When speculative frenzies from investors -> asset prices reaching levels that cannot be easily explained by the outlook for profits and dividends

25

2 examples of asset price bubbles?

Japanese bubble
dot.com boom
Check I can briefly explain both of them

26

Fundamentally, why do stock prices deviate from fundamental values?

People are 100% rational 100% of the time

27

Why aren't people are 100% rational 100% of the time? (2 and explained)

1) Attitudes towards risk:
eg. some investors may looks at past losses/gains and allow them to affect their decisions (wrongly)

2) Beliefs about probabilities:
eg. investors may make errors in assessing probability theory such as putting more weight on recent events rather than treating all equally

28

Define arbitrage?

A strategy that exploits market inefficiency and generates superior returns if and when prices return to fundamental values

29

Risk of arbitrage?

Prices may diverge even further before converging tf -> firing of those investing in it or value of companies falling to bankruptcy levels

30

What are the first 3 lessons of market efficiency, explained? (Apply to efficient markets)

1) Markets have no memory
(Weak form hypothesis shows sequence of past prices contains no info on future prices)
2) Trust market prices
(Prices can be trusted since they compound ALL available info)
3) Read the entrails
(Bing able to read bond/stock prices can teach us a lot about the firm) (ie. bonds trading at low prices imply firm is in trouble)

31

What are the second 3 lessons of market efficiency, explained? (Apply to efficient markets)

4) There are no financial illusions
(Investors are only concerned with the firm's cash flows and how much they are entitled to)
5) The do-it-yourself alternative
In an efficient market investors will not pay others for what they can do themselves (eg. they aren't interested in a merger -> a diversified firm if they can just buy the stock of both firms anyway)
6) Seen one stock, seen them all
(Stocks don't have 'unique qualities', they only have fair returns for their risk tf almost perfect subs. (tf almost perfectly elastic demand))