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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (23)
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1

Aldose

A monosaccharide that contains an aldehyde group

2

Amylopectin

A branched-chain polymer of starch composed of glucose units joined at alpha (1-4) and alpha (1-6) glycosidic bonds.

3

Amylose

An unbranched polymer of starch composed of glucose units joined by alpha (1-4) glycosidic bonds

4

Carbohydrate

A simple or complex sugar composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

5

Cellulose

An unbranched polysaccharide composed of glucose units linked by beta (1-4) glycosidic bonds that cannot be hydrolized by the human digestive system

6

Chiral

An object or molecule that has a nonsperimposable mirror image.

7

Chiral Carbon

A carbon atom that is bonded to four different atoms or groups.

8

Dissaccharide

A Carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond.

9

Enantiomers

Chiral compounds that are mirror images that cannot be superimposed`

10

Fischer Projection

A system for drawing stereoisomers; an intersection of a vertical and horizontal line represents a carbon atom. A vertical line represents bonds that project backwards from a carbon atom and a horizontal line represents bonds that project forward. The most highly oxidized carbon is on the top.

11

Fructose

A monosaccharide that is called levulose and fruit sugar and is found in honey and fruit juices; it is combined with glucose in sucrose.

12

Galactose

A monosaccharide that occurs combined with glucose in lactose

13

Glucose

An aldehoxose found in fruits, vegetables, corn syrup, and honey that is also known as blood sugar and dextrose. The most prevalent monosaccharide in the diet. Most polysaccharides are polymers of glucose.

14

Glycogen

A polysaccharide formed in the liver and muscles for the storage of glucose as an energy reserve. It is composed of glucose in a highly branched polymer joined by alpha (1-4) And alpha (1-6)glycosidic bonds

15

Glycosidic bond

The bond that forms when the hydroxyl group of one monosaccharide reacts with the hydroxyl group of another monosaccharide. It is the type of bond that links monosaccharides in di= or polysaccharides

16

Haworth structure

The ring structure of a monosaccharide

17

Ketose

A monosaccharide that contains a ketone group

18

Lactose

A disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose found in milk and milk products

19

Maltose

A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units; it is obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and is found in germinating grains

20

Monosaccharide

A polyhyroxyl compound that contains an aldehyde or ketone group

21

Polysaccharide

A polymer of many monosaccharide units, usually glucose. Polysaccharides differ in the types of glycosidic bonds and the amount of branching in the polymer.

22

Stereoisomers

Isomers that have atoms bonded in the same order, but with different arrangements in space.

23

Sucrose

A disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose; a non-reducing sugar, commonly called table sugar or "sugar"