Name at least three possible hazards that may be encountered during typical ground operations, such as engine run up or taxiing
Possibility of fire, esp. during engine starting.
Turning props, rotors, prop or jet blast and inlet areas.
Other aircraft, vehicles, people, and obstacles.
Foreign objects such as rocks, gravel, rags, or loose hardware.
High noise levels.
Hydraulic lock in radial engines.
Weathervaning of tailwheel aircraft
What is the most generally used knot for tying down small aircraft?
The bowline, although other anti-slip knots may be used
Describe the precautions that should be taken to protect life and property while starting and running an aircraft engine
Study the procedures in the Airplane Flight Manual.
Be sure the propeller or inlet area is clear and check for loose stones, gravel, etc. that could be sucked into the prop or engine.
Also ensure that the prop or jet blast doesn't blow into hangars or other airplanes, and have a fire guard nearby
If an engine induction fireoccurs while starting a reciprocating engine, what procedure should be followed to extinguish the fire?
Continue cranking the engine to start it and suck the fire into the engine.
If the engine doesn't start and the fire continues to burn, discontinue the start attemp and extinguish with a suitable fire extinguisher
What safety procedures must be observed when hand propping a small aircraft engine?
Become thoroughly trained.
Have a qualified person in the cockpit, check the brakes, call "SWITCH OFF" before moving the prop, and make sure you have solid foooting.
When ready to start, call "CONTACT" and listen for the reply.
Swing the prop with the flat of your hand and move back from the prop arc
What procedures should be followed prior to starting a large radial engine to detect and or prevent a hydraulic lock in the cylinders?
Pull the propeller through by hand for three or four complete revolutions. Resistance to prop turning indicates indicates a possible hydraulic lock in at least one of the cylinders
What is the cause of hydraulic lock in large radial engines?
Oil seeps by the piston rings and accumulates in the combustion chamber of lower cylinders. When a piston comes up on its compression stroke, the incompressible liquid seizes it
What is meant by the term "Hot Start" when starting a jet engine?
Ignition occurs with an excessively rich mixture, leading to a rapid temperature rise that can exceed the exhaust gas temp limit
When towing an aircraft, should you use the tow vehicle or aircraft brakes to stop the aircraft?
The tow vehicle brakes should be used except in an emergency, then the aircraft brakes may be used
Why should an aircraft technician become familiar with standard light signals?
Light signals may be used when taxiing an airplane without a radio or when a radio becomes inoperative on a tower controlled airport
If a mixture of avgas and jet fuel is used in a reciprocating aircraft engine, what are the possible results?
Avgas contaminated by jet fuel must not be used in piston engines- engine may be damaged or destroyed
What does the number 100 signify in 100LL aviation gasoline?
It refers to the lean mixture performance number (or octane rating) of the fuel
Is it permissible to use avgas in a turbine engine?
Limited operation may be allowed by the manufacturer. Continued use may reduce efficiency due to lead deposits on the turbine blades
What are some of the possible outcomes of using a lower grade of avgas than the specified grade?
An increased chance of engine damage due to detonation, loss of engine power, and an increased probability of overheating
Part 23.973 of the FAA regulations specifies that certain markings must be placed adjacent to fuel filler openings. What markings are used for reciprocating engines?
The filler openings must be marked with the fuel grade and the word AVGAS
Describe the important precautions that should be observed when fueling an aircraft
Use correct fuel, properly ground the aircraft and refueling unit, protect the aircraft surfaces from hose and nozzle damage
The marking requirements for oil tank filler openings are specified by FAR 23.1557. What markings are required for a piston engine powered airplane?
The word "OIL" and the permissible grades and or types or a reference to the appropriate Airplane Flight Manual for permissible grades and or types
Where can the standard aircraft taxi hand signals be found?
In the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)
Under what conditions should a reciprocating engine be pre-oiled?
Prior to starting a new engine or one that has been preserved for storage. This ensures lubrication on intitial startup.
Under what conditions may automobile gasoline be used in an aircraft engine?
Only if approved by the FAA, usually by the issuance of a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC)
What are the indications of water in aircraft fuel after draining a sample from the fuel sumps?
The sample may have a cloudy or hazy appearance or a solid slug of water