Chapter 13: Nervous System Medications Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Pharmacology > Chapter 13: Nervous System Medications > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13: Nervous System Medications Deck (55)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Adrenergic (Sympa- thomimetics)

A

relating to nerve fibers that release norepinephrine or epinephrine at the synapses

2
Q

Analgesic

A

medication that relieves pain

3
Q

Anxiolytic

A

medication that reduces anxiety

4
Q

Aura

A

—subjective, but recognizable sensation that precedes and signals the onset of a convulsion or migraine headache

5
Q

Autonomic nervous system

A

self-controlling, functioning independently

6
Q

Blood-brain barrier

A

densely packed cells that allow nutrients and certain other chemicals, but no others, to pass into the central nervous system

7
Q

CNS

A

Central Nervous System

8
Q

Cholinergic

A

agent that produces the effect of acetylcholine

9
Q

Drug holiday

A

period in which a patient with Parkinson’s disease stops taking medications for a period of time to allow the medications to be resumed at much lower doses while still obtaining desired benefits

10
Q

GABA

A

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

11
Q

Hydantoins

A

colorless bases; glycolyl urea; derived from urea and allantoin

12
Q

Monoamine oxidase

inhibitors (MAOIs)

A

medication that affects the action of monoamine oxidase at the synapse; used to treat depression and Parkinson’s disease

13
Q

Narcotic

A

strong painkiller, generally made from opium, or synthetically made; may be addictive both psychologically and physically

14
Q

Neuroleptic

A

medication used to treat psychoses

15
Q

Neurotransmitters

A

substance released when the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron is excited and acts by inhibiting or exciting a target cell

16
Q

Parasympathetic

A

of or pertaining to the craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system

17
Q

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

A

located at, or pertaining to, the periphery; occurring away from the center

18
Q

Psychotropic

A

affecting the mind, emotions, or behaviors

19
Q

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

A

drug used to treat depression related to low amounts of the neurotransmitter serotonin

20
Q

Somatic nervous system

A

pertaining to the body

21
Q

Status epilepticus

A

persistent and intractable asthm

22
Q

Sympathetic nervous system

A

division of the autonomic nervous system that produces a general rather than a specific effect and prepares the body to cope with stressful circumstances

23
Q

Synapse

A

space at the junction of two neurons

24
Q

Parasympathomimetic

A

medication that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system

25
Q

Based on what you learned in previous chapters and your understanding of how different routes of medication adminstration affect absorption, why would powders (aspirin in a powder form that you place on your tongue) work more rapidly than aspirin tablets?

A

BC and Goody’s powders have already been pulverized and thus are more readily absorbed in the cheek or on the tongue. They are absorbed into the bloodstream without having to be broken down in the stomach.

26
Q

What methods, other than drugs, can be used to decrease pain?

A

Answers may vary. Examples include exercise, relaxation techniques, biofeedback.

27
Q

Why should amphetamines not be prescribed routinely for obese patients who are trying to lose weight?

A

Constant use of amphetamines is a stress on the body, and they are highly addictive.

28
Q

If a patient on an MAOI went to a Super Bowl party, which typical party foods would he or she be unable to eat?

A

Answers may vary. Examples include bologna, wine, aged cheeses, pepperoni, sausage, hot dogs, and coffee. See Box 13-1.

29
Q

Why are antidepressants used to decrease pain?

A

Antidepressants improve nerve function, so they do not fire unnecessarily and create pain.

30
Q

If a patient is diagnosed with dementia, what precautions may need to be taken in the home?

A

Patients with dementia must be kept safe and have access to caregivers, because they may forget simple tasks, such as turning off the oven or turning on the heat. A home health referral or a nursing home may need to be considered.

31
Q

Why would an IV anesthetic be given before an inhaled gas is administered by mask?

A

Medications are frequently given IV to help the patient relax, so that other medications can be deeply inhaled.

32
Q

Parasympathomimetics have many therapeutic uses because of relatively few side effects.

A

False; they have few therapeutic uses because they cause many side effects.

33
Q

Some antipsychotic drugs are used to manage alcohol withdrawal.

A

False; some antiseizure drugs are used.

34
Q

Benzodiazepines are a type of local anesthesia.

A

False; esters and amides are types of local

anesthesia

35
Q

Salicylates have the side effect of prolonging bleeding time.

A

True; salicylates have the side effect of causing
gastrointestinal distress and bleeding, increased bleeding time, bruising, liver and kidney disorders, tinnitus, rash, drowsiness, headache, depression, and coma.

36
Q

Barbiturates are use for insomnia.

A

True; barbiturates and benzodiazepine hypnotics are used to treat insomnia.

37
Q

The nervous system is divided into three sections: the central, peripheral, and lateral nervous systems.

A

False; two sections, the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system.

38
Q

The somatic nervous system controls voluntary movement such as lifting your hand.

A

True; the somatic nervous system controls muscle that we voluntarily move, such as our hands, head, and feet.

39
Q

The somatic nervous system controls involuntary movements such as the constriction of pupils.

A

. False; the autonomic nervous system controls involuntary movements.

40
Q

The blood-brain barrier restricts very few substances from entering the brain.

A

False; the blood–brain barrier keeps many toxic substances and medications from entering the brain.

41
Q

Hydantoins are used to control seizures.

A

True; hydantoins and other barbiturates, succinimides, benzodiazepines, and a few other medications are used to control seizure activity.

42
Q

The classification of drugs used to treat depression is .
A. Benzodiazepine B. Antidepressants C. CNS stimulants
D. Narcotic analgesics

A

B.

Antidepressants are used primarily to treat depression.

43
Q

The classification of drugs usually used for surgical procedures is .
A. Benzodiazepines B. Anesthetics C. Barbiturates
D. Beta blockers

A

B. Anesthetics are used to provide loss of feeling during a surgical procedure.

44
Q

The disease most commonly associated with a drug holiday is .
A. Parkinson’s disease B. Alzheimer’s disease C. Myasthenia gravis
D. Fibromyalgia

A

A.
Patients with Parkinson’s disease are commonly given a drug holiday when the medications they are taking no longer provide the desired effect, even with high doses. They are stopped and restarted at lower doses after a short holiday.

45
Q

The classification of drugs usually used for treating psychosis is .
A. SSRIs B. EEGs C. Benzodiazepines
D. Neuroleptics

A

D. Neuroleptics are used to treat psychosis.

46
Q

Which type of anesthesia has a high risk of allergic reaction?
A. Amides B. Esters C. Both A and B
D. None of the above

A

B.

Esters are a type of anesthesia that have a high risk of allergic reaction.

47
Q

Which is the site of drug action?
A. Neurotransmitter B. Blood-brain barrier C. Synapse
D. Neural tube

A

C.

A synapse is a space at the junction of two neurons and is the site of most drug action.

48
Q
  1. Which part of the autonomic nervous system controls the body’s fight or flight response?
    A. Sympathetic B. Parasympathetic C. MAO
    D. SSRI
A

A.

The sympathetic nervous system controls the body’s fight-or-flight response.

49
Q

Which part of the autonomic nervous system controls the body’s rest and relaxation responses? A. Sympathetic
B. Parasympathetic C. MAO
D. SSRI

A

B. The parasympathetic nervous system controls the body’s rest and relaxation responses.

50
Q

Which of the following is a side effect of cholinergic drugs?
A. Increased heart rate B. Hypertension C. Decreased heart rate
D. Decreased salivation

A

C. Side effects of cholinergic drugs include the severe slowing of body system activity (including heart rate) and constriction of respiratory passages.

51
Q

Which is NOT a side effect of tricyclic lithium?
A. GI distress B. Hypotension C. Polyuria
D. Hyperglycemia

A

D. Side effects of lithium include GI distress, hypotension, cardiac irregularities, polyuria, tremors, and thyroid problems.

52
Q

Harry is taking a MAO inhibitor. He is very skeptical about the food interactions that occur with this drug and indicates that he will not be following the recommended diet. What would you do?

A

Provide educational material to Mr. Collins that addresses the severity of the reactions he may suffer if he eats foods containing tyramine. If he still is indicating that he will not follow the diet, notify the prescriber so that an alternative medication may be considered.

53
Q

Sandy is taking an SSRI, but at a lower dose than her sister. She wants to know why the same dose is not used and whether she should take as much as her sister. What would you tell her?

A

Explain to Mrs. Hanes that antidepressant doses are highly individualized, and what works for her sister may not work for her. It is best to use the lowest dose that achieve the desired results.

54
Q

Harold is in the office with his wife. She is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, and he is wondering when the prescribed medications should begin to reverse her symptoms. What education do you provide for this couple?

A

First, ask the couple if they have more questions for the physician, because they do not seem to understand this disease or its prognosis and treatment. When the physician is done talking to them, provide written educational materials, explaining that the goal of treatment is to slow the progression of the symptoms of this disease, but at this time, a cure is not possible.

55
Q
  1. Sheldon has been taking medication for Parkinson’s disease for 2 years. The doctor has prescribed a drug holiday for him, and he is very upset because he feels he needs these medications to function. Explain to him why it will help him to take a break from his medicine for a little while.
A

In Parkinson’s disease, the patients’ dosages have to be continually increased to obtain the same results in symptom control until the doses are considered to be unsafe. By taking a holiday from the drugs, the patients can be restarted at a much lower dose and achieve the desired results.