Chapter 13 Questions Flashcards Preview

Biology 151 > Chapter 13 Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13 Questions Deck (48)
Loading flashcards...
1

In animals, fertilization is to zygote as meiosis is to which of the following?
a. mitosis
b. diploid
c. chromosome
d. replication
e. gamete

e. gamete

2

Privet shrubs and humans each have a diploid number of 46 chromosomes per cell. Why are the two species so dissimilar?
a. Privet chromosomes undergo only mitosis.
b. Privet chromosomes are shaped differently.
c. Human chromosomes have genes grouped together differently.
d. The two species have appreciably different genes.
e. Privets do not have sex chromosomes.

d. The two species have appreciably different genes.

3

Why is it more practical to prepare karyotypes by viewing somatic diploid cells rather than haploid gametes?
a. Somatic diploid cells do not contain organelles to interfere with karyotyping.
b. Both sets of chromosomes, which are present in somatic diploid cells, need to be examined.
c. DNA in haploid gametes will not stain.
d. The chromosomes are larger in a somatic diploid cell.
e. Haploid gametes do not have sex chromosomes.

b. Both sets of chromosomes, which are present in somatic diploid cells, need to be examined.

4

In diploid species, diploid cells may undergo either mitosis or meiosis. Haploid cells may undergo mitosis (for certain species) but not meiosis because __.
a. the sister chromatids cannot separate
b. the synaptonemal complex is too strong
c. crossing over has occurred
d. cohesins are no longer present
e. homologous chromosomes cannot pair.

e. homologous chromosomes cannot pair.

5

How and at what stage is independent assortment accomplished?
a. pairing of homologs during meiosis I
b. separation of homologs during anaphase II
c. separation of homologs during meiosis II
d. metaphase alignment during meiosis I
e. telophase separation during meiosis I

d. metaphase alignment during meiosis I

6

What allows sister chromatids to finally separate, and in which phase of meiosis does this occur?
a. release of cohesin along sister chromatid arms in anaphase I
b. crossing over of chromatids in prophase I
c. release of cohesin at centromeres in anaphase I
d. release of cohesin at centromeres in anaphase II
e. crossing over of homologs in prophase I

d. release of cohesin at centromeres in anaphase II

7

Normal gametes produced from one meiotic event __.
a. are genetically identical to each other
b. each have the same chromosome number
c. are genetically identical to the cells produced from meiosis I
d. are genetically identical to the parent cell
e. each have the same mutations

b. each have the same chromosome number

8

Crossing over begins to occur during __.
a. anaphase I
b. anaphase II
c. prophase I
d. metaphase II
e. telophase II

c. prophase I

9

Figure
In this cell, what phase is represented?
a. mitotic metaphase
b. meiosis I anaphase
c. meiosis I metaphase
d. meiosis II anaphase
e. meiosis II metaphase

c. meiosis I metaphase

10

Figure
Most of the yeast cells in the culture were in G1 of the cell cycle before being moved to the nutrient-poor medium to induce meiosis. How many femtograms of DNA are there in a yeast cell in G1?
a. 12 fg
b. 24 fg
c. 40 fg
d. 48 fg

b. 24 fg

11

Figure
How many femtograms of DNA are present in a cell at the end of meiosis I?
a. 12 fg
b. 24 fg
c. 40 fg
d. 48 fg

b. 24 fg

12

Figure
How many femtograms of DNA are present in a cell at the end of meiosis II?
a. 12 fg
b. 24 fg
c. 40 fg
d. 48 fg

a. 12 fg

13

The graph below is based on data from the table; labels indicate the different phases of the meiotic cell cycle (MI - meiosis I; MII - meiosis II). Think carefully about the point on the graph where the line at the highest value begins to slope downward, indicated by the red arrow. What specific point of meiosis does this "corner" represent?
a. metaphase I
b. prophase II
c. cytokinesis
d. prophase I

c. cytokinesis

14

Based on these data, how much DNA is present in a gamete of Saccharomyces cerevisiae?
a. 12 fg
b. 24 fg
c. 40 fg
d. 48 fg

a. 12 fg

15

Why does sexual reproduction (via meiosis) have an advantage over asexual reproduction (via mitosis)?
a. Meiosis is more efficient at producing offspring.
b. Meiosis allows two parents to invest resources in offspring.
c. Meiosis allows for more competition.
d. Meiosis increases genetic variation among offspring.

d. Meiosis increases genetic variation among offspring.

16

The mosquito Aedes aegypti has a karyotype of 2n = 6. Which diagram shows this?
a. Figure. 3 sets of 2 pairs of descending order
b. Figure. 2 sets of three throuples
c. Figure. 1 set of 6 pairs
d. Figure. 6 chromosomes in descending order

a. Figure. 3 sets of 2 pairs of descending order

17

The mosquito Aedes aegypti has a karyotype of 2n = 6. Which diagram shows a proper metaphase I?
a. Figure. 3 sets of two lined up horizontally
b. Figure. 3 sets of two lined up vertically
c. Figure. 2 sets of three lined up vertically
d. Figure. Individual chromosomes lined up vertically

b. Figure. 3 sets of two lined up vertically

18

A haploid set of unreplicated chromosomes (n = 3) of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has a mass of 1.5 pg. What is the mass of DNA in single Aedes aegypti cells in prophase I?
a. 1.5 pg
b. 3 pg
c. 4.5 pg
d. 6 pg

d. 6 pg

19

A haploid set of unreplicated chromosomes (n = 3) of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has a mass of 1.5 pg. What is the mass of DNA in single Aedes aegypti cell in prophase II?
a. 1.5 pg
b. 3 pg
c. 4.5 pg
d. 6 pg

b. 3 pg

20

A haploid set of unreplicated chromosomes (n = 3) of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has a mass of 1.5 pg. What is the mass of DNA in single Aedes aegypti cell at the end of telophase II?
a. 1.5 pg
b. 3 pg
c. 4.5 pg
d. 6 pg

a. 1.5 pg

21

The mosquito Aedes aegypti has a karyotype of 2n=6. Through independent assortment alone, how many chromosomal combinations can be made during meiosis?
a. 3
b. 6
c. 8
d. 36

c. 8

22

The mosquito Aedes aegypti has a karyotype of 2n = 6. Through independent assortment and recombination, how many chromosomal combinations can be made during meiosis?
a. 12
b. 36
c. 144
d. many millions

d. many millions

23

A human cell containing 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome is
a. a sperm.
b. an egg.
c. a zygote.
d. a somatic cell of a male.

a. a sperm.

24

The two homologs of a pair move toward opposite poles of dividing cell during
a. mitosis.
b. meiosis I.
c. meiosis II.
d. fertilization.

b. meiosis I.

25

Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that
a. sister chromatids separate during anaphase.
b. DNA replicates before the division.
c. the daughter cells are diploid.
d. homologous chromosomes synapse.

a. sister chromatids separate during anaphase.

26

If the DNA content of a diploid cell in the G1 phase of the cell cycle is x, then the DNA content of the same cell at metaphase of meiosis I will be
a. 0.25x.
b. 0.5x.
c. x.
d. 2x.

d. 2x.

27

The DNA content of a diploid cell in the G1 phase of the cell cycle is x. If we continue to follow the cell lineage from question 4, then the DNA content of a single cell at metaphase of meiosis II will be
a. 0.25x.
b. 0.5x.
c. x.
d. 2x.

c. x.

28

A triploid cell contains three sets of homologous chromosomes. If a cell of a diploid species that normally has 42 chromosomes per cell is triploid, this cell would be expected to have which of the following sets of chromosomes?
a. 63 chromosomes, each with 3 sister chromatids
b. 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3
c. 21 chromosome pairs and 21 unique chromosomes
d. 63 chromosomes in 31 1/2 pairs

b. 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3

29

How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that are in prophase of meiosis I?
a. The cells have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.
b. The cells have half the amount of cytoplasm and twice the amount of DNA.
c. The cells have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.
d. The cells have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

a. The cells have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.

30

The bulldog ant has a diploid number of two chromosomes. Therefore, following meiosis, each daughter cell will have a single chromosome. In addition to mutations, how might genetic diversity be generated in this species?
a. crossing over and random fertilization
b. independent assortment only
c. nothing else
d. crossing over only

a. crossing over and random fertilization