Chapter 13: The Cell Cycle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13: The Cell Cycle Deck (16):
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Asexual reproduction

a type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more pairs

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Autosome

a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome

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Crossing over

the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I

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Diploid

a cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent

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Gamete

a haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.

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Gene

discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses)

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haploid cell

a cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n)

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Homologous chromosomes

chromosome pairs of the same lenght, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One comes from the mother, the other from the father.

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Locus

a particular place along the length of a certain chromosome where a given gene is located

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Meiosis

a two stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell

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Meiosis I

The first division of a two stage process of cell division

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Meiosis II

The second division of a two stage process of cell division

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Sex chromosomes

one of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual

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Sexual reproduction

a type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents

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Karyotype

a method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type

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Somatic cell

any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm cell or an egg cell