Chapter 14 and 15 - Alcohols and Haloalkanes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 and 15 - Alcohols and Haloalkanes Deck (12)
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1
Q

Why do alcohols have much higher boiling points than alkanes?

A

They have an OH group so they can form hydrogen bonds that require extra energy to be broken.

2
Q

Why are alcohols soluble in water?

A

The polar OH bond forms hydrogen bonds with the water molecules.

3
Q

As chain increases, how does solubility of alcohols change?

A

It decreases as the OH group’s influence becomes smaller.

4
Q

Are alcohols polar?

A

Yes because they have a polar OH bond.

5
Q

What is a nucleophile?

A

Species that donates a lone pair of electrons

6
Q

Give 3 examples of nucleophiles.

A

Water, H2O
Hydroxide ions, OH-
Ammonia, NH3

7
Q

What effects the rate of hydrolysis in haloalkanes?

A

The strength of the carbon-halogen bond.

8
Q

What is the trend in rate of hydrolysis down the halogen group and why?

A

Down the group rate of hydrolysis increases because bond enthalpy decreases so less energy is required to break the carbon-halogen bond.

9
Q

What is the equation of hydrolysis of haloalkanes with water?

A

CH3-X + H2O —> CH3OH + X- + H+

10
Q

How can the rate of reaction be followed in hydrolysis of a haloalkane?

A

React with Ag+ ions to form halide precipitate.

Ag+(aq) + X-(aq) —> AgX(s)

11
Q

What is the nucleophile in the reaction of haloalkanes with Ag+ ions?

A

Water which is present in the aqueous AgNO3.

12
Q

Why is the hydrolysis reaction of haloalkanes carried out in ethanol solvent?

A

Because haloalkanes are insoluble in water, so ethanol allows water and the haloalkane to mix and produce a single solution rather than 2 layers.