Chapter 14 - Two Societies at War, 1861-1865 Flashcards Preview

AP U.S. History > Chapter 14 - Two Societies at War, 1861-1865 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Two Societies at War, 1861-1865 Deck (27):
1

Jefferson Davis

former U.S. senator and secretary of war who eventually become president of the Confederacy

2

Robert E. Lee

commander of the Confederate Army

3

George McClellan

major general for the Union during the Civil War

4

Ulysses S. Grant

Commanding General of the Union Army and eventual 18th president

5

William T. Sherman

Union general

6

fire-eaters

proslavery southern extremists

7

Confederate States of America

nation formed by the seceded states

8

Alexander Stephens

vice president of the Confederacy

9

Crittenden Compromise

proposed by Senator John J. Crittenden; called for constitutional amendment to protect slavery from federal interference where it already existed and called for westward expansion of the Missouri Compromise line

10

Battle of Fort Sumter

bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter in Charleston, beginning the Civil War

11

Battle at Antietam

violent battle (bloodiest day in U.S. military history) resulting in McClellan allowing Lee and his army to retreat to Virginia

12

total war

a war that mobilizes all of a country's resources - economic, political, and cultural

13

draft (conscription)

system for selecting individuals for compulsory military service; first implemented during the Civil War

14

habeas corpus

legal instruments used to protect people from arbitrary arrest

15

Clara Barton

Union nurse who later founded the Red Cross

16

"King Cotton"

nickname for the southern staple crop that had great political and economic importance

17

greenbacks

paper currency issued by the Union during the Civil War

18

"contrabands"

slaves who fled plantations and sought protection behind Union lines during the chaos of the Civil War

19

Radical Republicans

members of the party who had been opposed to the "Slave Power" since the mid-1850s

20

Emancipation Proclamation

issued by Lincoln on January 1, 1863; legally abolished slavery in all states that remained out of the Union

21

Battle of Gettysburg

important Union victory - marked military, political, and diplomatic turning point

22

scorched-earth campaign

campaign in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia led by Union general Philip H. Sheridan; troops destroyed farming resources

23

War Democrats

vowed to continue fighting until the rebellion ended

24

Peace Democrats

called for "cessation of hostilities" and a constitutional convention to negotiate a peace settlement

25

Thirteenth Amendment

abolished slavery

26

"hard war"

tactics used by Union general William Tecumseh Sherman - treated civilians as combatants

27

March to the Sea

campaign led by Sherman to the coast of Georgia; army destroyed everything in its path to discourage Confederate efforts

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