Chapter # 14 Water Shuttle Operations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter # 14 Water Shuttle Operations Deck (81):

What are the three major components of a water shuttle operation?

The fill site. The shuttle route. The dump site.


What are the two primary types of apparatus required to operate an effective water shuttle operation?

Pumpers and water tenders.


Fill site pumpers should have a minimum pump capacity of what?

1,000 gpm


NFPA 1901 requires that tenders be designed to be filled at a rate of at least what?

1,000 gpm


A special fill site pumper may have a capacity of what?

1,600 gpm at 80 psi.


The back bone of any water shuttle operation.

Water tenders


Water tenders are required to carry how much water according to NFPA 1901? How much water do most water tenders carry today?

1,000 gpm. 1,500 - 3,000 gpm.


What three considerations must a department make when deciding on the size of a water tender tank?

Local water supply availability. Road conditions. Bridge weight restrictions.


A single rear axle apparatus is limit to what size tank?

Max of 1,500 gallons. Any bigger needs to be on a tandem rear, tri-axle, or semitrailer construction.


What type of water tender is the most efficient for use in a water shuttle operation?

Those with a less then 2,500 gallon tank and rapid unloading capabilities.


Tenders are not required to have a pump. Those that do and have one that is capable of 750 gpm or more, are called what?



A vacuum tanker is self filling from a static water source at a rate up to ...........gpm with a lift capability of up to .......feet. When using these there is no need for a fill site pumper.

2,000 gpm. 22'


What are some NFPA 1901 requirements for water tenders?

If it has a pump it needs to have a tank to pump line that can supply the pump with 500 gpm,until at least 80% of the water tank is empty, and should be at least 2" wide.

One external fill connection,plumb directly to the tank, 1,000 gpm fill rate, equipped with a valve,strainer,and 30 degree elbow.

One large tank discharge capable of emptying 90% of the tank at a rate of 1,000 gpm.


What can be done to speed up the water shuttle operation?

Decrease the fill and dump times.


Water tenders that fill with small diameter hose should have what?

At least two fill connections.


Any advantage that LDH has in fill rate may be negated by what?

The handling time.


NFPA 1901 requires at least one large discharge or dump valve. How many are recommended?

At least three. One on the back and one on each side.


Except for vacuum tankers, what are two primary types of large tank discharges used on water tenders?

Gravity dumps and Jet-assisted dumps.


Rely on natures gravitational pull to empty water from a tank. Usually 8" or larger round or square piping with a valve that extends to the exterior of the apparatus.

Gravity dumps


Use a small diameter in-line discharge that is inserted into the piping of the large tank discharge. The discharge is supplied by a fire pump on the apparatus. The in-line discharge creates a venturi effect that increases the water flow through the large tank discharge.

Jet-assisted dumps (Jet-dumps).


Name six disadvantages of jet-assisted umps.

Apparatus must have a fire pump. Fire pump must be engaged before dumping. Water can still be discharged with out the pump but at a much slower rate then just a gravity dump. Increase cost. Water can be discharged over the tank. Pump and piping could freeze.


What should the driver insure is open when dumping or filling the tank?

That the tank vents are open.


Name three decisions that must be made at the beginning of a incident to have a successful water shuttle operation.

Location of the dump site. Location of the fill site. Route of travel for the tenders between dump and fill sites.


If maneuvering of a apparatus is required, remember that it is always better to maneuver it when?

Before the tank is filled.


On large scale water shuttle operations it may be advantages to do what?

Use multiple fill and dump sites.


What is one of the most hazardous task for a water tender driver?

Driving the shuttle route.


What should the route of travel for the shuttle operation reflect?

Both safety and operational efficiency.


This type of route of travel is considered to be the optimum arrangement for conducting a water shuttle.

Circular route.


If there is a large hill in the route of travel what way should full tenders try to go and empty ones?

Full = down. Empty = up.


Name six additional safety considerations when choosing a route of travel for a water shuttle operation.

Narrow roads. Long driveways. Blind curves and intersections Winding roads. Steep grades. Inclement weather conditions.


Who should be requested to help control traffic flow at dangerous intersections when conducting a water shuttle operation?

Police officer


Who is in charge of the water shuttle operation when a water supply group is established by the IC?

Water supply group supervisor.


What are two positions that a water supply group supervisor should establish?

A fill site supervisor and a dump site supervisor.


Who should be in constant contact with each other and report when a tender is leaving the fill site or dump site?

The fill site, dump site, and the group supervisor.


When two or more shuttle operations are established a IC may make a what?

Water supply branch director.


The fill site pumper pump panel should be positioned so that the driver/operator can view what?

Both the source and fill operations.


What can be used to pump water to the fill site pumper if the static water source is inaccessible and not more then 100' away?

Two or more high volume portable water pumps.


What is the most common and efficient type of fill connections on a water tender?

2 2 1/2" and 1 large intake on the rear of the vehicle.


What should be considered is water tenders are having to wait for filling?

A second fill site.


What should be placed to help drivers to know where to position there vehicles at the fill site?

A cone or other marker. A driver should position the vehicles so that the driver side window is opposite the cone.


T or F At a fill site, each hoseline should have a gate valve installed between the last section and the next to last section of hose.



All apparatus operating in the water shuttle should have the same type of what?



What can be used as a gate valve on LDH?

A LDH manifold.


If filling a tender from the top, the fill site pumper can pump a small diameter hose in-line with the fill pipe creating a siphon. This should be pumped at what PSI? How much flow doe sit give through 4" pipe?

150 psi. 700-800 gpm through 4" pipe.


Filling a tank through the top with a portable fill device or a open hose but is not recommended. Why?

The reaction of the hoseline and firefighter safety of climbing on top of the tankers during this method.


Who are the make and break personnel?

The firefighters (one per hose line) that make the connects and break the connects at the fill site. They remain with the hose until replaced with other firefighters.


Who is the signal person?

One of the make and break personnel.


Who monitors the ground condition at the fill site?

The fill site officer or make and break personnel.


Once the decision to shut down the operation has been made, when should the fill site be shut down?

After all tenders are re-filled. (unless it is from a contaminated or static water source)


Name the three primary dump site methods.

Direct pumping. Nurse tender. Portable water tank.


A water tender pumps the water from its tank directly into the pump intake of the attack pumper. Uses a siamese with clapper valves. The first tender pumps the line, the second tender pumps the line at a slightly lower psi. There are not interruptions in the water supply as long as a tender is present.

Direct Pump Operation


Involves a very large water tender that is positioned immediately adjacent to the attack pumper and fulfills the same function of a portable tank. The attack pumper is either supplied by a discharge line or it drafts from the tank of the tender.

Nurse Tender Operation


What is a advantage of the nurse tender operation?

That the tender tank is so large the fire is typically controlled before there is a need to refill it.


What is a very efficient dump site operation and the easiest of the three methods to ensure a constant supply of water?

Using portable water tanks.


What is a disadvantage of the portable water tank operation?

If multiple tanks are to be deployed a substantial amount of working space is required for the dump site.


Name the three ways water can be emptied from a tender at the dump site.

Using a pump on the tender. Dump valve. Pumping and dumping simultaneously.


In general, it is not possible to pump water out of the apparatus as fast as what?

A dump valve.


Fire fighters should not hold what when dumping water from tankers?

Hose lines that are being used to dump the water.


What is the most efficient method of unloading tankers.

To dump the water into a portable tank through a gravity or jet assisted dump valve.


NFPA 1901 requires that all tenders be able to dump at a minimum of 1,000 gpm for the first ....% of the tank.



The simplest form of a dump site operation is one in which what is used?

A single portable tank.


A single portable tank works on fires that require a flow of less than how many gpm?

300 gpm


The most common style of portable tank it which type?

The folding type.


Is a large bladder that has a floating collar around the opening. This style of tank has an intake hose connection in the bottom of the tank from which drafting may be achieved.

Self supporting or frame less portable tank.


What size is recommend that a portable tank should be?

At least 500 gallons larger then the apparatus carrying it.


What type of strainer should the dump site pumper have attached to the hard intake hose?

A low level strainer.


Incidents that require fire flows of greater then 300 gpm are best served by what?

Multiple portable water tank operation.


The most common multiple water tank operation has how many portable tanks?



What are some disadvantages of connecting multiple portable tanks by their discharge ports?

It limits the # of tanks to 2. It will only equalized the water level.


What is the most efficient way to move water from one portable water tank to another?

With a jet siphon.


What size of hose is attached to the jet siphon and hard intake hose?

1 1/2"


If only two or three portable tanks are going to be used with jet siphons, what pumper can supply the jet siphons?

The dump site pumper.


Where should the tank drain be positioned when setting up a portable water tank?

On the low side of the tank.


What is the generally preferred method for arranging multiple portable tanks.

Tip to tip diamond shape.


Who should monitor the ground conditions around the dump site?

The dump site officer.


What should be done before shutting down a portable water tank operation?

Ensure that the dump site pumper and attack pumper have full tanks.


Water tender is based on what criteria?

Loading and unloading time. Vehicle condition. Drive train capabilities. Tank size.


There are two ways to determine a flow rating for a tender. One uses actual test the other uses a series of formulas developed by ISO. Describe the one that uses actual test.

Actual test that uses a timer to time how long the dump-drive-fill-drive back takes. That time is then divided by the gallons that the tanker carried - 10%. This give the tanker a gpm rating for a particular distance.
Equation = Tank size-10%/Trip time = GPM


Describe the equations from ISO that can determine a gpm rating for a tanker. One equation gives a travel time, the other gives a handling time. Both of these equations are then used to determine a flow rate. Describe these equations.

Equation = Travel time in minutes = 0.65 + (1.7) (distance in miles). This assumes a average speed of 35 mph between fill and dump sites.

Equation = Handling time = Fill site time {minutes +(tanks size / fill rate)} + Dump site time {minutes + (tanks size / dump rate)}.
Fill site time includes apparatus maneuvering, make and break, and filling.
Dump site time includes apparatus maneuvering, and dump time.

Equation = Tender flow rate = Tender water tank size - 10% / Travel time + Handling time.


ISO allows 90% of the tank capacity to be included in the equations. Most actual test found that only how much of the tank was being emptied at the dump site?



To receive full ISO rating the first water tender must start dumping water within how long of the first pumper arrival on scene? The pumper must continued to be supplied with ......... gpm for the next 2 hours.

5 minutes. 250 gpm.