Flashcards in Chapter # 4 Operating Emergency Vehicles Deck (61):
According to NFPA, what percent of firefighter injuries and deaths are caused by vehicle collisions while responding to or returning from a call?
According to NIOSH, how many firefighter deaths are caused by collisions and rollovers each year?
When are collisions most likely to occur?
During ideal vision and road conditions.
What are the five basic causes of fir apparatus collisions?
Improper backing. Reckless driving by the public. Excessive speed by operator. Lack of driving skill and experience. Poor apparatus design and maintenance.
Name two types of collisions that might occur if driving with excessive speed.
Loss of apparatus control. Unable to stop to avoid a collision.
Is there a lag in air brakes when compared with hydraulic brakes?
Name five additional causes of collisions that involve driver error.
Overconfidence in driving ability. Inability to recognize a dangerous situation. False sense of security because of good driving record. Misunderstanding of apparatus capabilities. Lack of knowledge about how to operate controls of the apparatus in a emergency.
How much does one gallon of water weight?
T or F Unless specifically exempt, fire apparatus driver/operators are subject to any statue, rule, regulation, or ordinance that governs any vehicle operator.
Usually describes those vehicles that are in the emergency category.
How long should a apparatus idle for a nonemergency response?
A battery switch should never be operated when?
The vehicle is running.
The starter control should be operated in intervals of no more then ............, with a rest period of ...........between each try.
30 seconds. 60 seconds Avoids overheating the starter.
How long should you watch the oil pressure gauge after staring the engine to ensure reasonable oil pressure.
5-10 seconds. Turn it off if it does not build pressure in that time.
What should the driver depress on a automatic transmission when they are ready to move?
The interlock on the gear shifter..
What causes Lugging?
Overthrottling. When the throttle is applied while the transmission is in too high a gear for a given set of conditions.
When does momentary unavoidable lugging take place?
When ascending step grades.
When downshifting or descending a hill choose a gear that allows the engine to operate at ........ to ........ rpm lower than the max recommended rpm.
200 to 300
This is activated when pressure is released from the accelerator. Because they provide most of the necessary slowing action, these devices allow the driver to limit the use of service brakes to emergency and final stops.
Engine brake and Retarders
This should not be disengaged while braking until the last few feet of travel. This is particularly important on slippery surfaces because an engaged engine allows more control of the apparatus.
How much fuel can be lost while idling?
1/2 gallon per hour
When an engine is left idling for a long period of time (scene lighting, extreme cold.) how many rpm should it idle at?
How long should a hot engine be left to idle before it is shut down?
NFPA 1500 provides three exceptions to the seated and belted rule. What are they?
Providing patient care. Loading hose. Training on a tiller.
When riding on a apparatus while loading hose NFPA 1500 requires these five things.
A safety lookout must be assigned. Area in which hose loading will take place must be closed to vehicle traffics. Must drive forward at no greater than 5 mph. No standing on apparatus while it is moving. Members in hose bed must sit or kneel when the apparatus moves.
Name some basic concepts of good defensive driving.
Anticipate other drivers actions. Estimate visual lead time. Know brake and reaction time. Combating skids. Knowing evasive tactics. Knowledge of weight transfer.
Name five control factors when driving.
Aim high in steering. Get the big picture. Keep your eyes moving. Leave yourself an "out". Make sure others can see and hear you ( use warning devices in combination).
Refers to drivers scanning far enough ahead of the apparatus, for the speed it is being driven, to ensure that evasive action can be taken if it becomes necessary.
Visual Lead Time
Visual lead time interacts directly with what?
Reaction time and Stopping Distance.
What is a standard visual lead time for city streets and for highways?
City street = 12 seconds. Highways = 20 seconds
The sum of the reaction distance and the braking distance.
Total stopping distance.
The distance of travel that passes while a driver transfers the foot from the accelerator to the brake.
What factors can affect a drivers reaction distance.
Age, Aptitude, Emotions, Fatigue, Intoxicating substance ingestion.
The distance of travel from the time the brake is applied to when the apparatus comes to a complete stop.
T or F Whenever a vehicle undergoes a change in speed or direction, weight transfer takes place relative to the rate and degree of change.
Steering should be what?
Smooth and continuous.
The most common cause of skids involve driver error. Give 5 examples.
Driving to fast for conditions. Failing to appreciate weight shifts or heavy apparatus. Failing to anticipate obstacles. Improper use of auxiliary braking devices. Improper maintenance of tire pressure and adequate tread depth.
A computer that is used in ABS systems makes a decision how many times per second?
What is the average delay time in air brake systems from when they are applied until sufficient air pressure is sent to the brake?
Commonly found on apparatus built before the mid-1970's. Improved types are found on newer apparatus. Older types had a dry road/slippery road switch. When engaged the air pressure to the front steering axle was reduced by 50%. This would actually cause a decrease in braking by 25% making them not safe. Newer systems automatically vary the amount of air delivered to the front steering axle.
Front brake limiting valve.
Friction-less braking system mounted to the drive shaft or rear axle that work in conjunction with the primary braking system. Will not engage under 2 mph.
Electromagnetic braking systems
Turns itself on and off. Engine speed decreases until traction is acquired to move the chassis. Installed in conjunction with ABS systems. Improves traction by reducing drive wheel spin.
Automatic Traction Control Systems (ATC)
Describe the two ways that ATC works.
When the drive wheel starts to spin, the ATC applies air pressure to brake the wheel. This gives power to wheels with traction. When all wheels are spinning , ATC reduces engine torque to improve traction.
Increases traction on extra soft surfaces. A additional option on a ATC system that can be controlled manually.
List safety guidelines for passing other cars.
Travel in the innermost lane on a mutilane road. Avoid passing on the right side. Ensure opposing lanes of traffic are clear if you cross the center line. Avoid passing other emergency vehicles.
When do automatic snow chains tend to loose their effectiveness?
When snow depth is greater than 8", when going in reverse, when moving at slow speeds.
It takes .......to....... times more distance for a vehicle to stop on snow and ice than it does on dry concrete.
A switch that may be activated from the cab after the foot is lifted off the accelerator, in apparatus with tandem rear axles, to help improve traction.
Inter axle differential lock (Power Divider, Third Differential).
At what speed can a apparatus outrun its warning device effective range?
How far apart should multiple units with warning devices activated travel apart?
What can reduce the effect of reflective trim on PPE?
Warning lights, Scene flood lights.
Where can controls for traffic control lights in front of stations be located.
Station. Apparatus. Dispatch center.
T of F Microphones that listen for sirens to change traffic control lights can be activated from a few hundred feet to about a 1/2 mile.
Standard for a Fire Service Vehicle Operations Training Program.
Specifies a number of practical driving exercise that driver candidates should be able to successfully complete before being authorized to drive the apparatus.
List five driving exercises required by NFPA 1002.
Alley Dock. Serpentine Course. Confined Space Turnaround. Diminishing Clearance. Road Test.
Test the drivers ability to turn the vehicle 180 degrees within a confined space.
Confined space turnaround.
Measures a drivers ability to steer the apparatus in a straight line, judge distance from wheel to object, and stop at a finish line.
How close to the finish line must a front bumper be in the diminishing clearance?
NFPA 1002 requires that road test at a minimum incorporate these nine exercises. What are they?
Four left and four right turns. A straight section of urban business street or two lane rural road at least 1 mile in length. One through intersection and at least two intersections where a stop is required. A railroad crossing. One curve, either left or right. A section of highway with a one ramp, and long enough for two lane changes. A downgrade that requires downshifting and braking. A upgrade that requires upshifting to maintain speed. One underpass or low clearance bridge.