Chapter 14 Workbook Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Workbook Questions Deck (39):
1

List the functions of the Optic nerve

Conducts sensory signal from receptors of the eye

2

List the functions of the Oculomotor nerve

Motor innervation of some ocular muscles; innervates intrinsic, smooth muscles of the eye

3

List the functions of the Trochlear nerve

Motor innervation of the superior oblique

4

List the functions of the Trigeminal nerve

Sensory innervation of face and temporomandibular joint (TMJ); motor innervation to muscles for chewing

5

List the functions of the Facial nerve

Motor innervation of facial muscles; innervates lacrimal and salivary glands

6

List the functions of the Glossopharyngeal nerve

Sensory innervation of the pharynx, soft palate and posterior tongue

7

List the functions of the Hypoglossal nerve

Motor innervation of the tongue

8

Axons of the optic nerve synapse in which region of thalamus?

Optic nerve axons synapse in the lateral geniculate of thalamus and the pretectal nucleus in the midbrain (for the pupillary and consensual reflexes).

9

What is the autonomic function of CN III?

CN III provides parasympathetic regulation of the pupillary sphincter and ciliary muscles for autonomic control of pupil constriction and lens curvature.

10

What is the difference between the pupillary and consensual reflexes?

Both the pupillary and consensual reflexes are elicited by shining a bright light into one eye. The pupillary reflex is constriction of the pupil in the eye stimulated by the light, and the consensual reflex is constriction of the pupil of the other eye. These reflexes are useful for evaluating brainstem function.

11

Which CNs are involved in the gag reflex?

The glossopharyngeal is the afferent and vagus nerve is the efferent innervation in the gag reflex.

12

Why is the (spinal) accessory nerve considered a CN if the cell bodies are in the upper cervical spinal cord?

CN XI (accessory) is categorized as a CN because the axons ascend through the foramen magnum and then exit the skull via the jugular foramen.

13

Which of the following are controlled by the oculomotor nerve?

A. Superior rectus muscle that moves the eye

B. Constriction of the pupil of the eye

C. Adjusting the shape of the lens of the eye

D. Both A and B

E. A, B, and C

E: The oculomotor nerve controls the superior, medial, and inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles that move the eye. The oculomotor nerve also includes parasympathetic neurons that provide the efferent signals for constricting the pupil and increasing the curvature of lens of eye.

14

What is Bell’s palsy?

A. Loss of the consensual reflex

B. Increased sweating and vasodilation on one side of the face

C. Contralateral paralysis of the muscles innervated by CN VII

D. Ipsilateral paralysis of the muscles innervated by CN VII

E. Severe pain in the facial region near the jaw

D: Bell’s palsy is ipsilateral paralysis of the muscles of facial expression caused by a lesion affecting axons of the facial nerve, CN VII.

15

First-order neurons conveying discriminative touch information from the face synapse in which of the following?

A. Ciliary ganglion

B. Trigeminal ganglion

C. Main sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve

D. Ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus

E. Mesencephalic nucleus

C: The main sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve is the site of synapse for first-order neurons conveying discriminative touch information from the face. The ciliary ganglion is the site of synapse for parasympathetic neurons innervating the ciliary muscle that increases the curvature of the lens in the eye. The trigeminal ganglion contains cell bodies of first-order neurons conveying somatosensory information from the face. The ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus is the site of synapse between second and third-order neurons conveying somatosensory information from the face to the cerebral cortex. The mesencephalic nucleus receives proprioceptive information from the muscles of mastication.

16

The temporalis, medial and lateral pterygoid, and masseter muscles are innervated by which of the following?

A. Trigeminal nerve

B. Glossopharyngeal nerve

C. Accessory nerve

D. Facial nerve

E. Hypoglossal nerve

A: The muscles of mastication (temporalis, medial and lateral pterygoid, and masseter muscles) are innervated by the trigeminal nerve.

17

First-order neurons that transmit fast sensory information perceived as pain from the face synapse in which of the following?

A. Mesencephalic nucleus

B. Trigeminal ganglion

C. Reticular formation

D. Main sensory nucleus

E. Spinal trigeminal nucleus

E: Central axons of Aδ neurons enter the pons, then descend as the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve into the cervical spinal cord. These neurons synapse with second-order neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Axons of second-order neurons transmitting fast pain information cross the midline and ascend in the trigeminal lemniscus to the ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus. Third-order neurons arise in the ventral posteromedial nucleus and project to the somatosensory cortex

18

The facial nerve innervates which of the following?

A. Muscles that close the eyes, move the lips, and produce facial expressions

B. Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles

C. Masseter, pterygoids, and temporalis

D. Both A and B

E. A, B, and C

A: The facial nerve innervates the muscles that close the eyes, move the lips, and produce facial expressions. The accessory nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. The trigeminal nerve innervates the masseter, pterygoids, and temporalis muscles.

19

What is the function of the following structure?

Secondary auditory cortex

Comparison of sounds with memories and categorization of sounds

20

What is the function of the following structure?

Wernicke’s area

Comprehension of spoken language

21

What is the function of the following structure?

Reticular formation

Modulation of central nervous system excitability

22

What is the function of the following structure? Primary auditory cortex

Conscious awareness of sound intensity

23

What is the function of the following structure? Inferior colliculus

Detection of the location of sounds

24

What is the function of the following structure? Medial geniculate body

Sensory relay station to the primary auditory cortex

25

What is the function of the following structure?

Organ of Corti

Converts mechanical energy into neural signals conveyed by the cochlear nerve.

26

What is the function of the following structure? Vagus nerve

Supplies both afferent and efferent innervation to the larynx, trachea, lungs, heart, gastrointestinal tract (except the lower large intestine), pancreas, gallbladder, and liver.

27

What is the function of the following structure? Descending limbic pathways

Regulates the production of facial expressions associated with real emotions.

28

What is the function of the following structure?

Glossopharyngeal nerve

Triggers the swallowing reflex.

29

Movements and pupillary responses of a client’s left eye are normal. The right eye looks downward and outward. The pupil is dilated and unresponsive to light, and the eyelid droops. Where is the lesion?

The lesion is to the right oculomotor nerve.

30

A client’s right eye moves normally. The left eye cannot be voluntarily adducted but cannot simultaneously look downward and toward midline. Where is the lesion?

The lesion is to the left trochlear nerve.

31

List the locations of lesions that may cause diplopia.

Lesions of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nerves or of the medial longitudinal fasciculus may cause diplopia (double vision).

32

Severe pain that does not involve sensory loss and occurs in the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve is known as ___________________.

Trigeminal neuralgia

33

Lower motor neuron involvement of which CNs may cause dysarthria?

Lower motor neuron involvement of CN V, VII, X, or XII can cause dysarthria. Upper motor neuron lesions affecting the signals to the CN nuclei of these CNs can also cause dysarthria.

34

Asymmetrical elevation of the palate and hoarseness indicate a complete lesion of which CN?

Complete lesion of the Vagus nerve causes asymmetrical elevation of the palate and hoarseness.

35

A client’s right eye moves normally. The left eye cannot adduct on voluntary gaze, yet adducts during convergence eye movements. What is the name of this condition, and where is the lesion?

This condition is known as internuclear ophthalmoplegia. The lesion is in the medial longitudinal fasciculus between the abducens and oculomotor nuclei.

36

Sensorineural deafness

What is the definition of this condition?

Hearing loss as a result of damage of the receptor cells or the cochlear nerve

37

Conductive deafness

What is the definition of this condition?

Hearing loss as a result of obstruction of the transmission of vibrations in the outer or middle ear

38

Tinnitus

What is the definition of this condition?

Perception of auditory buzzing, hissing, or ringing sounds in the absence of corresponding external stimuli

39

Label the Cranial Nerves in this picture

Q image thumb

A image thumb