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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (40)

What is Industrial Microbiology

Use of microorganisms for the large-scale production of organic products. Typically enhancing production of something they normally make


How did industrial microbiology originate

Originated with alcohol and lactic acid fermentations. Later productions of antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, food additives and enzymes


What is biotechnology

Genetic engineering used to alter organisms to produce new or better products


What are properties of a useful industrial microbe

1. Rapid growth on a large scale on inexpensive medium
2. Produces desired product quickly
3. Should not be pathogenic
4. Can be affected by genetic manipulation


What are some microbial products of industrial interest

Food (GMOs), probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, food additives


What are commodity chemicals

Inexpensive chemicals produced in builk. Ex. ethanol, citric acid, biofuels


What are primary metabolites

Produced in large amounts during the exponential growth phase as part of normal metabolism Ex. ethanol, acetate, amino acids


What are secondary metabolites

Often produced during the stationary phase and are not essential for growth (not housekeeping). Formation depends on growth conditions and some are produced by spore-forming microbes during sporulation. Ex. antibiotics


What is a fermentor

A vessel for large scale microbial growth.


What is large scale growth

Fermentation - but can be aerobic or anaerobic growth depending on organism and desired product


What is essential for large-scale fermentors

Impellers and spargers and proper growth conditions


What are impellers and spargers in fermentors

They are used for mixing and supplying oxygen for aerobic growth


What are growth conditions in fermentors

The temperature, pH, nutrients are controlled with sensors and computers


Describe industrial fermentors

Closely monitored during production run, the growth and product formation must be measured, and growth conditions must be controlled and altered as needed


What are antibiotics

Compounds that can kill or inhibit the growth of microbes and are produced by microbes as secondary metabolites


What are actinomycetes

Most antibiotics are produced by actinomycetes soil bacteria or filamentous fungi


How are new antibiotics discovered in the lab

Laboratory screening. First you spread a dilution sample of possible antibiotic producing bacteria on selective medium. Then overlay the plate with an indicator organism that can be killed by antibiotics. The colonies that produce antibiotics will have a zone of growth inhibition where they have inhibit the growth of the stuff in the indicator overlay.


Which vitamin is produced exclusively by microorganisms

Vitamin B12 because of the complicated structure


What are amino acids used for

They are used as animal feed additives and nutritional supplements. Also used as starting materials in the chemical industry.


What are enzymes used for

They can be used as industrial catalysts


What are exoenzymes

Extracellular enzymes that are secreted into the medium that hydrolyze (digest) polymers such as starch, cellulose, protein, nucleic acids, and lipids


What produces exoenzymes

Normally produced by bacteria to obtain food monomers for uptake


What are bacterial proteases used in

They can be used in laundry detergents (contain amylases and lipases)


What is biotechnology

Use of living organisms for industry, but usually implies GMO


What is a genetically modified organism (GMO)

An organism whose genome has been altered with foreign genes. Genetic engineering allows expression of eukaryotic genes in prokaryotes


How do you express eukaryotic genes in prokaryotes

Achieved by cloning the gene from spliced mRNA (so introns are removed because bacteria do not have a splicesome) and using a bacterial expression vector


Describe the process of putting eukaryotic genes in prokaryotes

You start with the eukaryotic mRNA. Then you add primers to the strand and use reverse transcriptase to form sscDNA with a hairpin loop. cDNA is like DNA but no intron sequences. Then the RNA is removed with alkali and a DNA polymerase I is used to form dsDNA and a nuclease is used to cleave the primer sequence off. The final product is a ds cDNA that can be spliced ino a vector and cloned


What are some problems with protein synthesis in a foreign host

Degradation by intracellular proteases, toxicity to the host, and overexpressed protein may form inclusion bodies, insoluble protein aggragates


What is a protein fusion

Fusion of a target protein with a carrier protein can facilitate protein purification. Fusing your target protiein with a well-behaved protein to facilitate proper protein folding.


How do you make a protein fusion

Have a vector that will code for your target protein as well as a carrier protein that will bind to the target protein. The target protein can be cleaved off later with proteases


What are some recombinant vaccines

1. Vector vaccine
2. Subunit vaccine
3. DNA vaccine (genetic vaccine)
4. Polyvalent vaccine


What is a vector vaccine

Vaccine made by inserting genes from a pathogenic virus into a relatively harmless carrier virus, which is used to infect animals or humans to induce an immune response


What is a subunit vaccine

Contains only specific protein or proteins from a pathogenic organism (coat protein), overexpressed in cloning host cells and purified to make vaccine. This purified protein is injected as a vaccine and will result in an immune response


What is a DNA vaccine

Defined fragments of pathogen DNA containing genes that encode immunogenic proteins are delivered by injection. The pathogen genes are expressed in the subject to cause an immune response. Ex. displaying the virus proteins on the surface of the membrane to induce an immune response.


What is a polyvalent vaccine

A single GMO vaccine that immunizes against two or more different diseases


What is agrobacterium tumefaciens used for

It is a bacterial plant pathogen and can be used to introduce DNA into plants. A. Tumefacians contains the Ti plasmid which is responsible for virulence


What is the Ti plasmid and what does it do

A tumor inducing plasmid. A. Tumefaciens naturally genetically modifies plant cells to make food for the bacteria . A modified version of the Ti plasmid is used for genetic engineering of plants.


What is T-DNA

The segment of the Ti plasmid that is transferred to the plant and can have foreign DNA inserted into it.


Describe the process of genetically modifying plants

Foreign DNA is introduced into a cloning vector and inserted into E.coli. E.coli can then transfer this vector to A. tumefaciens (one containing a disarmed Ti plasmid) through conjugation. Then the cloning vector is transferred to the plant cells and incorporated into the plant cells chromosome to allow for growth of transgenic plants


What is BT Toxin

A protein originally from Bacillus thuringiensis that is genetically engineered to be placed in plants to produce insect resistance.