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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (63):
1

Psychological Disorders

Significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behaviour.
- disturbed or dysfunctional thoughts, emotions, or behaviours are maladaptive.

2

"Yesterdays Therapy"

Brutal treatments including the trephination evident. (drilling holes in the skull attempting to release evil spirits and cure those with mental disorders)

3

The Medical Model

Search for physical cause of mental disorders and for curative treatments.

4

The Biophychological approach

General appraoch positioning that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors all play a significant role in human functionin in the context of disease or illness.

5

Psychological Disorders: Biological influences

-Evolution
-Indivial genes
-Brain structures and chemisrty

6

Psychological Disorders: Psychological influences:

-Stress
-Trauma
-Mood related perceptions and memories
-Learned helplessness

7

Psychological Disorders: Social- cultural influences

-Roles
-Expectations
-Defintions of normality and disorder

8

Diagnostic classification in psychiatry and psychology

-Predicts the disorder's future course
-Suggests appropriate treatment
-Prompts research into its causes

9

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)

Describes disorders and estimates their occurrence.

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DSM-5 Changes

-label changes ( intellectual disorder)
- new or altered diagnoses (mood dysregualitons)
- new categories: hoarding, binge-eating

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DSM-5 criticism

-Antisocial personality disorder and generalized anxiety disorder did poorly on the fields trials
-DSM-5 contributes to pathologizing of everyday life
- Systems labels are society's value judgments

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DSM-5 benefits

The system helps mental health professionals communicate and is useful in research

13

ADHD (Attention- deficit/ hyperactivity disorder)

-Extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
-11% of Americans 4-17 years gt diagnosed
-2.5% have ADHD have symptoms

14

Are people with psychological disorders dangerous?

-Mental disorders seldom lead to violence and clinical prediction of violence is unreliable

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Rates of Psychological DIsorders

-Psychological disorder rates vary depending on the time and place of the survey
-Poverty is a risk factor

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percentage of americans reporting selected psychological disorders in the past year

*see google doc*

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What increases vulneralility to mental disorders?

*see google doc*

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Anxiety Disorders

marked by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviours that reduce anxiety

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Generalized anxiety disorder

The person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

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Panic disorder

Person experience sudden episodes of intense dread and often lives in fear of when the attack might strike

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Phobias

Person experiences a persistent, irrational fear avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation

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OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder)

-Characterized by persistent and repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both
-Takes over everyday life
-common amnog teens

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PTSD

- disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawl, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia lingering for four weeks or mre after a traumatic experience
-higher risk in women

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Classical Conditioning - Understanding Anxiety Disorders, OCD, and PTSD

Research helps explain how panic-prone people associate anxiety with certain cues

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Stimulus generalization - Understanding Anxiety Disorders, OCD, and PTSD

Research demonstrates how a fearful event can later become a fear of similar events

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Reinforcement - Understanding Anxiety Disorders, OCD, and PTSD

(Operant conditioning) Can help maintain a developed and generalized phobia.

27

Cognition

Observing others can contribute to development of some fears
-olsson and colleagues: Wild monkey research findings

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interpretations and expectations

shape reactions
-hypervigliance

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Genes - Biology (Understanding anxiety Disorders, OCD, and PTSD)

Genetic predisposition to anxiety, OCD, and PTSD

30

The Brain - Biology (Understanding Anxiety Disorders, OCD, and PTSD)

Trauma linked to new fear pathways, hyperactive danger detection, impulse control and habitual behaviour areas of the brain

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Natural Selection - Biology (Understanding Anxiety Disorders, OCD, and PTSD)

Biological preparedness to fear threats-easily conditioned and difficult to extinguish

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Major Depressive disorder

Person experiences two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

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Persistent depressive disorder

Person experiences mildly depressed mood more often than not for at least two years, along with two other symptoms

34

Less common condition of bipolar disorder

Person experiences not only depression but also mania- impulsive behavior

35

Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorder (theories must explain)

-Behaviors and thoughts change with depression.
-Depression is widespread.
-Women's risk of major depression is nearly double men's.
-Stressful events related to work, marriage and close relationships often precede depression
-With each new generation, depression is striking earlier in life and affecting more people

36

The depressed brain

-Brain activity slows during depression
-Left frontal lobe less active
-Scarcity of norepinephrine and serotonin

37

The Heritability of Various Psychological Disorers

- Risk increases if family member has disorder
-Twin studies data estimated heritability of major depression at 37%
-Linkage analysis points to "chromosome neighborhood"
-Many genes wokr together and produce interacting small effects that increase risk for depression

38

Ups and Downs of Bipolar disorder

PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with the patients emotional switches. Red areas are where the brain is using energy most rapidly.

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During depression

-Brain activity slows during depression
-Left frontal lobe less active
-Scarcity of norepinephrine and serotonin

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Social-cognitive perspective

-Depresssed people view self and world negatively
-Explores how people's /assumptions and expectations influence their perceptions

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Depression’s Vicious Cycle

*see google doc*

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Suicide

-Invovles 1 million people world wide
-Higher risk with diagnosis of depression
-More likely to occur when people feel disconnected from or burden others

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Nonsuicidal self- injury (NSSI)

-Cutting, burning oneself, pulling out hair, inserting objects under nails or skin, self-administered tattooing

44

comparing suicide rates of different groups

-National differences
-Racial differences
-Gender differences
-Age differences and trends
-Other group differences
-Day of the week differences

45

Why do people engage in NSSI hurt themselves?

-Gain relief from intense thoughts through the distraction of pain
-Ask for help and gain attention
-Releive guilt by self-punishment
-Get others to change their negative behavior (bullying, criticism)
-Fit in with a peer group

46

Rates of nonfatal self-injury in the U.S.

Self-injury rates peak higher for females than for males (CDC, 2009).

47

Schizophrenia

Psychological disorder characterised by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression

48

Schizophrenia symptoms

-Disturbed perceptions
-Disorganized thinking and speech
-Diminished and inappropriate emotions and actions

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Chronis schizophernia (process schizophrenia)

Form of schizophrenia in which symptoms usually appear by late adolescence or early adulthood.

50

Acute schizophrenia (reactive schizophrenia)

Dorm of scizophrenia that cna begin at any age, frequently occurs in reponse to an emotionally traumatic event, and has extended recovery periods

51

Brain chemistry (Brain abnormalities)

-Excess number of dopamine receptors

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Abnormal brain activity and anatomy (brain abnormalities)

-Problems with several brain regions and their interconnections
-low activity in frontal lobes
-More rapid brain tissue loss

53

Genetics & risk(schizophrenia)

-Odds of being diagnosed are nearly 1 in 100; in 10 for those diagnosed with a family member
-adopted children risk is related to biological parent
-influenced by many genes
-Epigenetic factors gene expression

54

Prenatal environment and risk

-Low birth weight
-Lack of oxygen during delivery
-Maternal preternal nutrition
-Midpregnancy viral infection (e.g., flu, dense population, season of birth)

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Schizophrenia warning signs

-Social withdrawl or other abnormal behavior
-Mother with severe and lon-lasting schizophrenia
-Birth complications
-Seperation from parents
-Short attention span and poor muscle coordination
-Disruptive or withdrawn behavior
-Emotional unpredictability
-Poor peer relations and solo play
-Childhood physical, sexual, or emotional abuse

56

Dissociative disorder

Conscious awareness becomes seperated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

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Dissociative identity disorder (DID)

Rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalilties-- formerly called multiple personality disorder

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Personalitly disorder

Disruptive, inflexible, and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. this disorder formsthree clusters, characterized by anxiety, eccentric or odd behaviors, and dramatic or impulsive behaviors

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Antisocial personalty disorder

-Lack of consciece for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; impulsive, fearless, irresponsible; some genetic tendencies, incuding low arousal

60

anorexia nervosa (eating disorder)

Person (usually an adolecent female) maintains starvation diet despite being significantly underweight

61

Bulimia nervosa (eating disorder)

Person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use), fasting, or excessive excersize

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Binge-eating disorder

Significant binge eating, folloed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the purging, fasting, or excessive excersize that marks bulimia nervosa

63

understanding eating disorders

Psychological factors can overwhelm the body's tendency to maintain a normal weight
-Cultural pressures, low self-esteem, and negative emotions interact with stressful life experiences and genetics to produce eating disorders