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Psychoanalytic and Humanistic therapies

Attempt to improve functioning by increasing clients' awareness of motives and defenses


Behavior therapies

Not insight therapies. Their goal is to apply learning principles to modify problem behaviors


History of treatment

Visitors to eighteenth-century mental hospitals paid to gawk at patients, as though they were viewing zoo animals.


Whos Painting captured one of the visits to London's St. Mary of Bethlehem hospital (commonly called Bedlam)

William Hogarth (1697-1764)



psychological techniques derived from psychological perspectives; trained therapist uses psychological techniques to assist someone seeking to overcome difficulties or acheive presonal growth


Biomedical therapy

Involves treatment with medical procedures; trained therapist, most often a medical doctor, offers medications and other biologoical treaments


Electric approach

approach to psychotherapy that uses techniques from various forms of therapy


Psychoanalysis (goals)

Bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness; to help patients release energy devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts so they may achieve healthier, less anxious lives


Psychoanalysis (techniques)

Historical reconstruction, initially through hypnosis and later through free association; interpretation of resistance, transference


Psychodynamic therapy (goals)

To help people understnad current symptoms; to explore and gain perspective on defended-against thoughts and feelings


Psychodynamic therapy (Techniques)

Client-centered face-to-face meetings, exploration of past relationship torubles to understand origins of current difficulties


psychodynamic therapy

influenced by traditional psychoanalysis but differs from it in many ways


Differences (Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic therapies)

-lack of beleif in id, ego and superego
-briefer, less expecnsive, and more focused on helping the client find relief from current symptoms
-Helps clients understand how past relationships create themes that may be actd out in present relationships


Interpersonal therapy

-Brief 12-16 sessions form of psychodynamic therapy that has been effective in treating depression


Humanistic perspective (theme)

Empahsis on poeples potential for self-fulfilment; to give people new insights


Humanistic perspective (goals)

To reduce inner conflicts that interfere with natural development and growth; help clients grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance promoting persona; growth


Humanistic perspective (techniques)

Client-centered therapy; focus on taking responsibility for feelings and actions and on present and future rather than past


Roberts Perspective (Humanistic therapies)

-person centered therapy focuses on persons concious self-perceptions; non-directive; active listening; unconditional positive regard
-Most people possess resources for growth
-therapists foster by exhibiting genuiness acceptance and empathy



Uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviours


Exposure therapies

treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things ther fear and avoid


Systematic desensitization

Associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing, anxiety- triggering stimuli


Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy

Treats anxiety by electronic simulations in which people can safey face their greatest fears, such as airplanes, flying, spiders, or punlic speaking


Adversive conditioning (goals)

Substituting negative response for a positive response to a harmful stimulus; conditioning an aversion to something the person should avoid


Adversive Condtioning (techinques)

Unwanted behaviour is associated with unpleasant feeligns; ability to discriminate between aversive conditioning situation in therapy and all other situations can limit treatment effectivness


Operant contitioning therapy

Consequences drive behaviour: voluntary behaviours are strongly influenced by their consequences


Behaviour modification

Desired behaviour reinforced; undesired behaviour not reinforced, sometimes punished


Token economy

People earn a token for exhibiting a desired behaviour and can later exchange the tokens for privileges or treats


Critics maintain

-techniques such as those used in token economics may produce behavious changes thatdisappear when rewards end.
-Deciding which behaviours should change is authoritarian and unethical


Proponents argue

-Treatment with positive rewards is more humane than punishing people or institionalizing them for undesired behaviours


Cognitive therapies

Teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions


Beck's therapy for depression

-Gentle questioning seeks to reveal irrational thinking and then to persuade people to change their perceptions of their own and others actions as, dark, negative, and pessimistic
-People trained to recognize and modify negative self-talk


A cognitive perspective on psychological disorders

The persons emotional reactions are produced not directly by the even but by the persons thoughts in response to the event


Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT)

-Is integrative therapy that combines therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavious therapy (changing behviour)
-Aims to alter the way they act AND the way they think
Helps people learn to make more realisitic appraisals


Group therapy

-Conducted with groups rather than individuals, providing ebenfits from group interaction
-Often used when client problems involve interactions with others


Group therapy benefits

-Saves therapists time and clients money
-Encourages exploration of social behavious and social skill development
-Enables people to see that others share their problems
-Provides feedback as clients try out new ways of behaving


Family therapy

-Attempts to open up communication withing the family and help family members to discover and use conflict resolution strategies
-Treats the family as a system
-Views an individuals unwanted behaviours as influenced by, or directed at, other family members


Is psychotherapy effective?

-Clients positive testimonials cannot prove that psychotherapy is actually effective

-The placebo effect makes it difficult to judge whether improvemnt occurred because of the treatment

-Research indicates that those not undergoing treatment often improve, but those undergoing psychotherapy are more likely toimprove more quickly, and with less chance of relapse


Treatment vs No treatment

the two normal distribution curves based on data from 475 studies show the imporvemnt of untreated poeple and psychotherapy in clients. the outcome for the avergae therapy client surpassed the outcome for 80% of the untreated people


Alternative therapies

Abnormal states often return to normal and the placebo effect can mislead effectivness evaluation


Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)

Some effectivness shown-- not from the eye moevment but rather from the sposure therapy nature of the treatments


Light exposure therapy

Releif from depression symptoms for those with a seasonal pattern of major depressive disorder by activating a brain region that influences arousal and hormones


How do psychotherapies help people

-hope for demoralized people
-new perspective for oneself and the world
-empathetic, trusting, caring relationship (theraputic alliance)


Cultures and Values in psychotherapy

-Psychtherapists personal beliefs and values influence their practice
-Differences in cultural and moral diversity and religious values can create a mismatch


finding a mental health professional

- A person seeking therapy in encourages to ask about
treatment approach
-An important consideration is whether the potential clietn feels comfortable and able to establish a bond with the therapist



INcludes study of drug effects on mind and behaviior, has helped make drug therapy most widely used biomedical therapy


Drug therapies

-Are most widely used biomedical treatments
-Include prescribed antidepressants for 27 million americans
-Involve placebo nad double-blind techniques to evaluate drug effectivness


antipsychotic drugs

 Mimic certain neurotransmitters (e.g., block or increase activity of
dopamine); reduce overreaction to irrelevant stimuli
 May produce sluggishness, tremors, twitches and tardive dyskinesia; Thorazine
 Successfully used with life-skills programs and family support to treat schizophrenia


Anti anxiety drugs

-Depress CNS activity; Xanax or ativan
-Used in combination wiht psychological therapy
-May reduce symptoms without resolving undelrying probelms; withdrawl linked to increased anxiety and insomnia


Antidepressant drugs

-Increase availability of norepinephrine or serotonin; promote birth of new brain cells
-Slow synaptic vaccuming up of serotonin (SSRIs)
_effectivness sometimes questioned due to sponteneous recovery and placebo effect


Mood-stabalizing medications

-Dpakote: controlling manic episodes
-Lithium: levels emotional hihgs and low of bipolar disorder


Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

-Manipulates brain by shocking it
-Involves adminstation of general amesthetic and muscle relaxation to prevent convulsions
-Causes less memory disruption than earlier versions
-AMA concluded that ECT methods among most positive treatment effects; reduces suicidal thoughts
-Involves several theories about reason for effectivness



-Involves surgery that removes or destorys brain tissue in an effort to change behaviour
-Is irreversible; least used biomedical therapy



-Psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients
-Procedure cut the nerves connecting to the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain (Moniz)
-Today, less invasive techniques ued; MRI-guided surgery in severe disorders


Vagus nerve stimulation

Stimulates neck nerve that sends signal to limbis system; increases available serotonin by increasing firing rate of some neurons


Deep brain stimulation

Manipulates depressed brain via pacemaker; stimulates inhibition activity related to negative emottions and thoughts


Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

sends magnetic energy to brain surface through coiled wire help close to brain; fewer side effexts; modest effectivness


Traning seminars (therapeutic lifestyle change)

-Human brains and bodies were designed for physical activity and social engagement
-Ancestors hunted, gatheres, and built in groups with little evidence ofdisabling depression


Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (goals)

Aerobic excersize, adequate sleep, light exposure, social connection, antirumination, nutritional supplements


Preventive mental health programs work to build resilience

-Based on the idea that many psychological disorders could be prevented by changing oppressive, esteem-destroying environments into more benelovent, nurturing environments that foster growth, self-confidence



-Involves pesonal strength that helps most poeple cope with stress and recover from adversity and trawma
-Can be seen in new york after 9/11,spinal cord injury patients, halocaust survivors and others