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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Blood Deck (75)
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1

Describe the important components of blood

The blood is made up of cells, fragments of cells and dissolved biochemicals containing nutrients, hormones, oxygen and wastes.

2

Cardiovascular system consists of?

Heart
Blood
Blood vessels

3

Functions of blood

Transportation

Protection by fighting foreign invaders

Clotting to prevent bleeding

Also involved in :
acid base balance
fluid and electrolyte balance
regulation of body temperature

4

What kind of tissue is blood?

Connective tissue with its cells suspended in a liquid, the extracellular matrix.

Is the only fluid tissue in the body

Is a homogeneous liquid. This means it has a similar composition throughout.

5

Blood contains formed elements

Red blood cells

White blood cells or leukocytes

Platelets

Of these only the WBC are complete cells containing nuclei and organelles.

6

How long do formed elements last in the blood?

Most of the formed elements exist for only a few hours or days before they are replaced by new cells.

Most of them do not divide but are replaced by stem cells that continually divide in the red bone marrow

7

The liquid portion of blood is called?

Plasma

8

Composition of plasma

Electrolytes

92% Water

7% proteins - albumins, globulins, fibrinogin

Wastes

Nutrients - vitamins, hormones

Gases - N2 O2 CO2

9

Blood functions: distribution

Delivery O2 from the lungs.
Delivery nutrients from gastrointestinal tract.
Transport of hormones from endocrine organs to target organs.
Transport metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites: Kidneys for disposal of nitrogenous wastes in the urine
&
Lungs for the elimination of CO2

10

Blood functions: regulation

Maintenance of proper fluid volume in the circulatory system:
Proteins in the blood prevent excessive fluid loss from the bloodstream into tissue spaces. Therefore fluid volume remains in the blood vessels, supporting efficient blood circulation throughout the body.

Maintenance of body temperature by absorption and distribution of body heat, as well as to skin surfaces for heat loss.

Maintenance of normal ph in body tissues, with proteins and other bloodborne solutes becoming buffers, preventing serious changes in blood pH.

The blood also is a reservoir for bicarbonate ions, which are the body’s alkaline reserve.

11

Blood functions: protection

Prevention of infection via the actions of antibodies, complement proteins and WBC’s. this protects the body against bacteria, viruses, and other foreign agents.

Prevention of blood loss via the actions of platelets and plasma proteins, which begin clot formation and slow or stop blood loss.

12

Three types of plasma proteins

Albumins

Globulins - alpha, beta, gamma

Fibrinogen

plasma proteins are heavier then electrolytes and are not typically used as energy sources, remaining in the blood and interstitial fluids.

The liver synthesises and releases more than 90% of the plasma proteins.

13

Plasma

Plasma suspends the cells and platelets of blood. It is a clear, straw coloured liquid made up of 92% water, with organic and inorganic biochemicals.

In many respects the composition of plasma resembles interstitial fluid. Concentrations of major plasma ions are similar to those of the interstitial fluid, differing greatly from the concentrations inside cells.

14

Most prevalent electrolytes in the plasma

Sodium

Chloride

15

Colloid osmotic pressure

Albumins are the smallest plasma proteins but make up 60% of these proteins weight. They are made in the liver and play an important role in the plasma’s osmotic pressure, transporting smaller molecules such as hormones and ions.

Plasma proteins are too large to move through capillary walls, so they create an osmotic pressure to hold water in the capillaries, which is known as ‘colloid osmotic pressure’.

This helps regulate water movement between blood and tissues, to aid in controlling blood volume and blood pressure. Therefore, albumins act as important blood buffers.

16

Globulins

Include alpha, beta and gamma globulins make up 36% of plasma proteins.

17

Fibrinogen

Makes up 4% of plasma proteins

Is important for blood coagulation. Under certain conditions fibrinogen molecules interact to form large, insoluble strands of fibrin. This substance provides the basic framework for a blood clot.

Made in the liver and is the largest in size of the plasma proteins.

18

The most important blood gases are?

Oxygen and carbon dockside.

Nitrogen is also contained in the plasma.

19

plasma nutrients include?

amino acid‘s, nucleotides, lipids and simple sugars absorbed from the digestive tract.

Glucose is transported in the plasma from the small intestines to the liver. in the liver glucose is stored as glycogen or converted to fat. Plasma carries amino acid‘s to the liver to manufacture proteins or to be used for energy. Plasma lipids include triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids

20

plasma lipids

lipids are not water soluble, but the plasma is mostly made of water. Hence lipids join with proteins to form lipoproteins which the plasma can carry

21

non-protein nitrogenous substances

they have nitrogen atoms but are not proteins. in the plasma these include amino acid’s, urea and uric acid.

22

Blood plasma also contains many electrolytes

Potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, bicarbonate and sulphate ions. The most abundant types are sodium and chloride ions. All plasma constituents are regulated so the blood concentration remains mostly stable.

23

hematocrit

The percentage of blood volume made up of red blood cells

24

blood volume: red blood cells

45%

25

blood volume: white blood cells and platelets

<1%

26

blood volume: plasma

55%

27

Blood contains formed elements and plasma: plasma contains

Water
amino acid’s
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
hormones
electrolytes
vitamins
cellular wastes

28

How much blood does an average adult have

Approximately 5 litres

29

Blood contains formed elements and plasma: formed elements

Platelets
red blood cells
white blood cells

30

Blood contains formed elements and plasma: formed elements - WBC

Neutrophils 54-62%
Eosinophyls 1-3%
basophils <1%
monocytes 3-9%
lymphocytes 25-33%