Chapter 15 Differential Diagnosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Differential Diagnosis Deck (37)
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1

What is different diagnosis?

The process of narrowing possibilities and reaching conclusions about the nature of a deficit.

2

When doing a speech evaluation always try to:

Make a diagnosis

3

If you can't make a definitive diagnosis then:

>Describe what you find
>State why you couldn't make a diagnosis
>State what it's not definitely not
>Do not offer a definitive diagnosis, use words like undetermined, equivocal, probably possible

4

Make a speech diagnosis related to:

The suspected neurological diagnosis or suspected site of lesion and state whether the speech signs are consistent or inconsistent with them

5

Just because a person is diagnosed with a type of disease doesn't mean that they:

Have deviant speech at the time of the evaluation due to the severity and the level of progression of a disease

6

Etiologies and differential diagnosis:

Some etiologies help determine what to expect in terms of speech deficits

7

Vascular Etiologies:

>Can cause any type of dysarthria
>Most commonly associated with Spastic, UUMN, and Ataxic dysarthria
>Hemorrhagic stroke is the most common cause of dysarthrias

8

Degenerative Diseases:

>Can cause any type of dysarthria
> Most commonly causes Spastic, Ataxic, Hypokinetic, Flaccid dysarthria

9

Parkinson's Disease only associated with:

Hypokinetic dysarthria

10

ALS only associated with:

Mixed Flaccid-Spastic dysarthria

11

TBI etiologies in general:

>Can cause any type of dysarthria

12

TBI close head injury etiologies:

Most commonly associated with Spastic dysarthria

13

TBI open head injury etiologies:

Most commonly associated with Spastic, Ataxic, and UUMN dysarthria (the CNS dysarthrias)

14

TBI skull fractures and neck trauma etiologies:

Flaccid dysarthria only

15

Surgical Trauma etiologies:

>Can cause ANY type of dysarthria EXCEPT Hypokinetic
>ENT, chest/cardiac surgeries are ONLY associated with Flaccid dysarthria
>Neurosurgery is associated CNS dysarthrias and Flaccid dysarthria

16

CNS dysarthrias

Ataxic, Spastic, & UUMN

17

Toxic/Metabolic etiologies

>Most commonly associated with Hyperkinetic and Ataxic dysarthrias

18

Infectious and inflammatory conditions:

Rarely causes dysarthrias and is dependent on the condition

19

Demyelinating diseases:

>Can cause ANY type of dysarthria
>RARELY associated with Hypokinetic
>Dependent on the disease

20

Guillain Barre

Associated with Flaccid dysarthria

21

MS

Associated with Ataxic dysarthria

22

Anatomic Malformation (of the brain Arnold-Chiari)

Associated with Flaccid dysarthria

23

Neuromotor Junction Disorder etiologies (PNS diseases)

Only associated with Flaccid dysarthria

24

Dysarthrias that can (most commonly) be presented without a neurological diagnosis:

Hyperkinetic, Spastic, & Ataxic

25

Oral Mechanism Findings

certain findings in the oral mechanism are not required for Motor Speech Disorders but are used as confirmatory signs

26

FLACCID Oral Mechanism Findings

>Atrophy and fasiculations
>Hypoactive gag reflex most often occur
>Nasal regurgitation may be seen
>Rapid loss of intelligibility = Myasthenia Gravis

27

SPASTIC Oral Mechanism Findings

>Pathological oral reflexes
>Hyperactive gag reflex
>Pseudobalbar effect
>Problems w/ drooling and swallowing

28

ATAXIC Oral Mechanism Findings

>Dysmetria in non speech jaw/face/tongue movements

29

HYPOKINETIC Oral Mechanism Findings

>Orofacial tremors
>Masked face is common

30

HYPERKINETIC Oral Mechanism Findings

>Abnormal movements at rest and in speech