Flashcards in Chapter 15 Part 3 Deck (20)
Growth stocks are those with
high expectation of growth in earnings, though often have a low dividend payout. These types of stocks usually have a high price-to-earnings ratio .
Income stocks, such as those issued by
utility companies, often provide high dividend payouts.
Value stocks tend to sell at a
low price-to-earnings ratio. These issues are usually undervalued by the market because they are in a sector that is currently out of favor.
emerging growth stocks are typically
new companies with little, if any, earnings and an unproven track record.
Cyclical stocks tend to
perform in relation to the economic cycle (e.g., manufacturers, materials, etc.).
Countercyclical companies perform
inversely to the economic cycle. for example, if the economy is declining, gold stocks tend to rise.
Defensiue stocks are stocks that perform
consistently, regardless of the economic cycle (e.g., utility companies or drug manufacturers).
Sector stocks are those stocks that represent a
segment of the economy, or industry specific companies (e.g., airline companies, technology stocks, and gold stocks).
Speculative stocks are stocks that are considered
high risk. These companies tend to fluctuate a great deal in price or have a positive track record of earnings.
Special situation stocks are companies that
may be involved in an event that will affect their earnings, such as a merger, restructuring, or bankruptcy.
Corporate bonds are
debt securities that provide investors with a fixed-income stream. The interest paid is taxable at the federal, state, and local levels. Corporate bonds are subject to various risks such as inflation risk, reinvestrnent risk, default risk, and credit risk.
Municipal bonds are
a type of bond that is more suitable for investors in a high tax bracket. The interest received from these types of debt instruments is exempt from federal income taxes. However, the interest may be subject to state and local taxes
The U.S. government issues various debt instruments. Three of the most popular are
Treasury bills, Treasury notes, and Treasury bonds. Since these securities are issued by the Treasury, they are considered safe and are very liquid. The interest paid on these bonds is exempt from state and local taxes, but is subject to federal taxes. Government debt may be subject to inflation and reinvestment risk, but is not subject to default risk.
An optimal portfolio provides the
greatest return for a given amount of risk.
A line created by graphing these optimal portfolios
Monte Carlo Simulation
illustrates the hypothetical performance of a portfolio over time by using randomly selected variable rates of return identical to the returns a client would earn in the market. The rates of return are based on the expected rate of return and the corresponding standard deviation.
expected return equation
Rz = Rrf + Bz(Rm-Rrf) Rz = the expected return on investment Z, Rrf = the risk free rate (the return on a risk free investment), Rm = the treturn of the market (S&P 500 index), Bz = the beta of investment Z
T-bills are usually used to approximate the returns on a
risk-free rate (RRF). As previously mentioned, T-bills are short-term, fixed income securities issued by the U.S. government
beta is the measurement of
the volatility, or systematic risk, of a security or a portfolio in comparison to the market as a whole.