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4 stages of infectious process

- incubation
- prodromal
- illness
- convalescent


when an organism firsts enters the body and lasts until the onset of symptoms



the short time from the onset of vague, nonspecific symptoms to the beginning of specific symptoms of infection

prodromal period


localized and systemic sighs and symptoms appear, fever, headache, and malaise may occur

illness period


period begins when the symptoms begin to subside and extends until the patient has returned to a normal state of health

convalescent period


health care associated infections

infections transmitted to a person while receiving health care services


who is at risk for HAI's?

-surgical incisions w/or without drains
-artificial airways
-indwelling urinary catheters
-central lines


delineate methods for avoiding direct contact w/all body secretions except seat

standard precautions


based on interrupting the mode of transmission by identifying the specific secretions, body fluids, tissues, or excretions that might be infective

transmission based precautions


PPE donned order

- googles/face shield


4 rules of surgical asepsis

-know what is sterile
-know what is not sterile
-separate sterile from unsterile
-remedy contamination immediately


principles of aseptic technique

- only sterile items are used w/in the sterile field
- the edges of a sterile package are considered contaminated after opened
-avoid reaching across a sterile field
-open wrapper away from the body
-area 1 in surrounding the outer edge of the sterile field is unsterile
- keep hands above waist level


steps in the brushless technique

- dispense 2mL of antimicrobial agent into the palm of one hand
- w/the fingertips of the other hand, work some of the alcohol based agent under nails
-spread remaining portion of the agent over all surfaces of the hand and arm just above elbow
- dispense another 2mL into palm of other hand


n-95 mask

-patients in airborne precautions
-pulmonary tuberculosis