Flashcards in Chapter 17 Anatomy and Physiology of Respiratory System Deck (25):
Right Vs. Left Lung
Left: 2 lobes, cardiac notch
Right: 3 lobes, larger and wider
in nose, have blood vessels that warm and humidify air
contains tiny hairs and mucus to trap any unwanted particles or germs from entering respiratory tract. Mucus also warms and humidifies air.
the process by which air enters the lungs and is expelled from the lungs
the process in which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and the tissues.
external intercostals contracts- lung pressure decreases.
diaphragm contract- thoracic volume increases
atmospheric pressure > lung pressure
external intercostals relax- lung pressure increases
diaphragm relaxes- thoracic volume decreases
HR and RR Ratio
formed by nasal, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, vomer, maxilla and palatine bones
air-containing spaces in nasal cavity bones; when they become infected and fail to drain properly into nasal cavity, increased fluid pressure causes pain.
Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx (all ciliated pseudostratified columner)
voicebox, box of cartilage held together by ligaments.
wind pipe, conducts air into lungs.
Primary Bronchi- supply to each lung
Secondary Bronchi- supply to individual lobes of each lung
Effect of Exercise on CO2 Production
CO2 output relies largely on the amount of energy your body is using; when you exercise, you significantly increase energy used.
Body increases HR and RR to get more O2 to create more energy. Oxygen goes to cells with waste (CO2) which needs to be exhaled from body. Increased O2 use, causes increased CO2 production.
Carbon Dioxide and pH
CO2 rises= pH levels lower (lots of H+ ions)
high CO2= hemoglobin releases O2 more readily
Low pH= H+ ions bind to Hb and alter its structure which decreases Hb's carrying capacity for oxygen and promotes unloading.
acid-base indicator, basic solutions= pink, neutral solutions= colorless
When you blow bubbles into an alkaline solution, color will eventually disappear because you are neutralizing the NaOH w/ carbonic acid formed from your exhaled CO2.
volume of air that enters/exits lungs with each normal breath.
maximum amount of air that can be exhaled above tidal volume
maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal quiet inspiration beyond tidal volume.
volume of air left over in lungs after forceful expiration
Exercising: blood CO2 levels increase which causes higher rate of respiration, need more oxygen to support amount of energy being used.
high altitudes, hypoventilation