Chapter 17 Anatomy and Physiology of Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Anatomy and Physiology of Respiratory System Deck (25):
1

Right Vs. Left Lung

Left: 2 lobes, cardiac notch
Right: 3 lobes, larger and wider

2

Nasal Conchae

in nose, have blood vessels that warm and humidify air

3

Nose

contains tiny hairs and mucus to trap any unwanted particles or germs from entering respiratory tract. Mucus also warms and humidifies air.

4

Ventilation

the process by which air enters the lungs and is expelled from the lungs

5

Respiration

the process in which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and the tissues.

6

Inspiration

external intercostals contracts- lung pressure decreases.
diaphragm contract- thoracic volume increases
atmospheric pressure > lung pressure

7

Expiration

external intercostals relax- lung pressure increases
diaphragm relaxes- thoracic volume decreases
atmospheric pressure

8

Respiratory Rate

14-16 inspirations/minute

9

Heart Rate

72 bpm

10

HR and RR Ratio

1:5

11

Nasal Cavity

formed by nasal, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, vomer, maxilla and palatine bones

12

Paranasal Sinuses

air-containing spaces in nasal cavity bones; when they become infected and fail to drain properly into nasal cavity, increased fluid pressure causes pain.

13

Pharynx

Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx (all ciliated pseudostratified columner)

14

Larynx

voicebox, box of cartilage held together by ligaments.

15

Trachea

wind pipe, conducts air into lungs.

16

Respiratory Tree

Primary Bronchi- supply to each lung
Secondary Bronchi- supply to individual lobes of each lung
Terminal Bronchi
Respiratory Bronchioles
Aveolar Ducts
Alveoli

17

Effect of Exercise on CO2 Production

CO2 output relies largely on the amount of energy your body is using; when you exercise, you significantly increase energy used.
Body increases HR and RR to get more O2 to create more energy. Oxygen goes to cells with waste (CO2) which needs to be exhaled from body. Increased O2 use, causes increased CO2 production.

18

Carbon Dioxide and pH

CO2 rises= pH levels lower (lots of H+ ions)
high CO2= hemoglobin releases O2 more readily
Low pH= H+ ions bind to Hb and alter its structure which decreases Hb's carrying capacity for oxygen and promotes unloading.

19

Phenolphthalein

acid-base indicator, basic solutions= pink, neutral solutions= colorless
When you blow bubbles into an alkaline solution, color will eventually disappear because you are neutralizing the NaOH w/ carbonic acid formed from your exhaled CO2.

20

Tidal Volume

volume of air that enters/exits lungs with each normal breath.

21

ERV

maximum amount of air that can be exhaled above tidal volume

22

IRV

maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal quiet inspiration beyond tidal volume.

23

Residual Volume

volume of air left over in lungs after forceful expiration

24

Up Regulation

Exercising: blood CO2 levels increase which causes higher rate of respiration, need more oxygen to support amount of energy being used.

high altitudes, hypoventilation

25

Down Regulation

Resting: CO2 blood level is lower, so breathing rate is lower; body is not using a lot of energy so it will down regulate because there is no need for increased oxygen levels.

hyperventilation