Chapter 21 Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology II Lab > Chapter 21 Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 21 Urinary System Deck (19):
1

Flow of Fluid Through Cortical Nephron

Bowman's Capsule, Glomerulus, Proximal Convoluted Tubule, Descending Loop of Henle, Ascending Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule, Collecting Duct

2

Urinary Organs

2 Kidneys, 2 Ureters, 1 Urinary Bladder, 1 Urethra.

3

Nephrons

responsible for filtration of the blood; makes sure beneficial products are reabsorbed into the blood, while the wastes becomes urine.

4

Filtration

the separation between low molecular weight products from high molecular weight products and not beneficial product from waste.

5

Sphincter Urethrae

guards urethra, composed of smooth muscle
relaxes= desire to urinate

6

Sphincter Viscerae

guards urethra, composed of skeletal muscle

7

Specific Gravity of Urine

1.002 to 1.030

8

Diabetes Insipidis

individual may be dehydrated causing the specific gravity to be too low.

9

Hyperglycemia

significant glucose in the urine indicates that there was too much to begin with in the blood and not all of it was reabsorbed.

10

Glucosuria

the presence of glucose in the urine

11

Diabetes Mellitus

can cause the presence of glucose in the urine.

12

Proteinuria

the appearance of protein in the urine since there is not mechanism to reabsorb them. Prolonged cold baths, large amounts of dietary protein, and overexertion can cause this.

13

Ketone Bodies

appear in urine when there is inadequate carbohydrates in the blood, and the body is forced to metabolize fats for energy.

14

Cast

epithelial cells aggregated together to form a cylindrical cast.

15

Urinanalysis

if there is glucose in the blood, you might also find bacteria, leukocytes to fend off infection and ketones because diabetics usually have glucose utilization issues and break fat down for energy when glucose levels aren't being monitored. Also if glucose is present it is likely bacteria will also be present, but if bacteria is present it doesn't necessarily mean glucose will be present.
Positive for nitrites then there is definitely bacteria present but if there are bacteria present they may not be nitrite producing species.

16

Urine Color

milky white= bacteria/pus
orange/red= cirrhosis of liver or jaundice
green/brown= excessive bile pigments
brown/grey/pink= presence of blood

17

Urine Turbidity

cloudiness may result from mucin secreted from urinary tract, which is normal in small amounts but abnormal if too turbid. Also caused by bacteria, phosphates, pus, urates, fats and excessive epithelial cells.

18

Urine pH

fresh urine ranges from 4.8-7.5
after 24 hours becomes more alkaline due to breakdown of acids by bacteria.
Urinary retention, chronic cystitis cause high pH
Acidosis, fever, and high protein diet cause low pH.

19

Urine Sediment

in small quantities epithelial cells, WBCs, sperm, RBCs, bacteria and casts are normal.