Flashcards in Chapter 21 Urinary System Deck (19):
Flow of Fluid Through Cortical Nephron
Bowman's Capsule, Glomerulus, Proximal Convoluted Tubule, Descending Loop of Henle, Ascending Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule, Collecting Duct
2 Kidneys, 2 Ureters, 1 Urinary Bladder, 1 Urethra.
responsible for filtration of the blood; makes sure beneficial products are reabsorbed into the blood, while the wastes becomes urine.
the separation between low molecular weight products from high molecular weight products and not beneficial product from waste.
guards urethra, composed of smooth muscle
relaxes= desire to urinate
guards urethra, composed of skeletal muscle
Specific Gravity of Urine
1.002 to 1.030
individual may be dehydrated causing the specific gravity to be too low.
significant glucose in the urine indicates that there was too much to begin with in the blood and not all of it was reabsorbed.
the presence of glucose in the urine
can cause the presence of glucose in the urine.
the appearance of protein in the urine since there is not mechanism to reabsorb them. Prolonged cold baths, large amounts of dietary protein, and overexertion can cause this.
appear in urine when there is inadequate carbohydrates in the blood, and the body is forced to metabolize fats for energy.
epithelial cells aggregated together to form a cylindrical cast.
if there is glucose in the blood, you might also find bacteria, leukocytes to fend off infection and ketones because diabetics usually have glucose utilization issues and break fat down for energy when glucose levels aren't being monitored. Also if glucose is present it is likely bacteria will also be present, but if bacteria is present it doesn't necessarily mean glucose will be present.
Positive for nitrites then there is definitely bacteria present but if there are bacteria present they may not be nitrite producing species.
milky white= bacteria/pus
orange/red= cirrhosis of liver or jaundice
green/brown= excessive bile pigments
brown/grey/pink= presence of blood
cloudiness may result from mucin secreted from urinary tract, which is normal in small amounts but abnormal if too turbid. Also caused by bacteria, phosphates, pus, urates, fats and excessive epithelial cells.
fresh urine ranges from 4.8-7.5
after 24 hours becomes more alkaline due to breakdown of acids by bacteria.
Urinary retention, chronic cystitis cause high pH
Acidosis, fever, and high protein diet cause low pH.