Flashcards in Chapter 17 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalances VOCAB Deck (34)
blood pH below 7.35
a process in which molecules move against the concentration gradient. External energy is required for this process. An example is the sodium-potassium pump
blood pH above 7.45
negatively charged ions
act chemically to change strong acids into weaker acids or to bind acids to neutralize their effect (primary regulator of acid-base balance)
positively charged ions
Central Venous Access Devices (CVADs)
catheters placed in large blood vessels (e.g., subclavian vein, jugular vein) of people who require frequent or special access to the vascular system
substances whose molecules dissociate, or split into ions, when placed in water
a term used to describe the distribution of body water
the force that fluid exerts within a compartment.
a solution that increases the degree of osmotic pressure on a semipermeable membrane.
a solution that has a lower concentration of solute than another solution, thus exerting less osmotic pressure on a semipermeable membrane.
fluids with the same osmolality as the cell interior
the osmotic pressure of a colloid in solution.
the number of milliosmoles per kilogram of water, or the concentration of molecules per weight of water
the movement of water “down” a concentration gradient, that is, from a region of low solute concentration to one of high solute concentration, across a semipermeable membrane
measured in milliosmoles (mOsm) and may be expressed as either fluid osmolarity or fluid osmolality
1. During the postoperative care of a 76-year-old patient, the nurse monitors the patient's intake and output carefully, knowing that the patient is at risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalances primarily because
a. older adults have an impaired thirst mechanism and need reminding to drink fluids.
b. water accounts for a greater percentage of body weight in the older adult than in younger adults.
c. older adults are more likely than younger adults to lose extracellular fluid during surgical procedures.
d. small losses of fluid are more significant because body fluids account for only about 50% of body weight in older adults.
2. During administration of a hypertonic IV solution, the mechanism involved in equalizing the fluid concentration between ECF and the cells is
c. active transport.
d. facilitated diffusion.
3a. An older woman was admitted to the medical unit with dehydration. Clinical indications of this problem are (select all that apply)
a. weight loss.
b. dry oral mucosa.
c. full bounding pulse.
d. engorged neck veins.
e. decreased central venous pressure.
3a. a, b, e,
3b. The nursing care for a patient with hyponatremia includes
a. fluid restriction.
b. administration of hypotonic IV fluids.
c. administration of a cation-exchange resin.
d. increased water intake for patients on nasogastric suction.
3c. The nurse should be alert for which manifestations in a patient receiving a loop diuretic?
a. Restlessness and agitation
b. Paresthesias and irritability
c. Weak, irregular pulse and poor muscle tone
d. Increased blood pressure and muscle spasms
3d. Which patient would be at greatest risk for the potential development of hypermagnesemia?
a. 83-year-old man with lung cancer and hypertension
b. 65-year-old woman with hypertension taking β-adrenergic blockers
c. 42-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and renal failure
d. 50-year-old man with benign prostatic hyperplasia and a urinary tract infection
3e. It is especially important for the nurse to assess for which clinical manifestation(s) in a patient who has just undergone a total thyroidectomy (select all that apply)?
b. Weight gain
c. Depressed reflexes
d. Circumoral numbness
e. Positive Chvostek's sign
3e. a, d, e,
3f. The nurse anticipates that treatment of the patient with hyperphosphatemia secondary to renal failure will include
a. fluid restriction.
b. calcium supplements.
c. loop diuretic therapy.
d. magnesium supplements.
4.The lungs act as an acid-base buffer by
a. increasing respiratory rate and depth when CO2 levels in the blood are high, reducing acid load.
b. increasing respiratory rate and depth when CO2 levels in the blood are low, reducing base load.
c. decreasing respiratory rate and depth when CO2 levels in the blood are high, reducing acid load.
d. decreasing respiratory rate and depth when CO2 levels in the blood are low, increasing acid load.
5.A patient has the following arterial blood gas results: pH 7.52; PaCO2 30 mm Hg; HCO3− 24 mEq/L. The nurse determines that these results indicate
a. metabolic acidosis.
b. metabolic alkalosis.
c. respiratory acidosis.
d. respiratory alkalosis.
6. The typical fluid replacement for the patient with a fluid volume deficit is
b. 0.45% saline.
c. lactated Ringer's.
d. 5% dextrose in 0.45% saline.
7. The nurse is unable to flush a central venous access device and suspects occlusion. The best nursing intervention would be to
a. apply warm moist compresses to the insertion site.
b. attempt to force 10 mL of normal saline into the device.
c. place the patient on the left side with head-down position.
d. instruct the patient to change positions, raise arm, and cough.