Chapter 17 part 1- Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 part 1- Blood Deck (60):
1

Blood

a fluid connective tissue

2

what is blood composed of?

-plasma
-formed elements
- erythrocytes
-leukocytes
-platelets

3

Hematocrit

percent of blood volume that is RBCs
- 47% for males
- 42% for females

4

what is an erythrocyte?

RBC

5

What is a leukocyte?

WBC

6

how much of your blood is plasma?

55% of whole blood, the least dense component

7

What are your formed elements made of?

~buffy coats
- leukocytes and platelets, <1% of whole blood
~Erythrocytes
- 45% of whole blood, most dense component

8

what are physical characteristics and volume of blood?

-sticky, opaque fluid
-color scarlet to dark red
- pH is 7.35-7.45
-38 *C
- 8% of body weight
- average volume:
-5-6 L for males
- 4-5 L for females

9

3 functions of blood

distribution, regulation, and protection

10

What does blood distribute?

- 02 and nutrients to body cells
- metabolic wastes to lungs and kidneys
- hormones from endocrine organs and transported to target organs

11

What des blood regulate?

- body temperature
-normal pH using buffers
- adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system (if not, lack of oxygen)

12

What does blood protect against?

- blood loss, plasma proteins and platelets initiate clot formation
- infection,
-antibodies
-complement proteins
-WBCs defend against foreign invaders

13

What is your blood plasma made of?

-90% water
-proteins (are mostly produced in the liver)
- 60% albumin
-36% globulins (proteins parts for antibodies)
-4% fibrinogen (

14

formed elements?

-only WBCs are complete cells
-RBCs have no nuclei or organelles
-platelets are cell fragments
-most formed elements survive only survive a few days
-most originate in bone marrow and DONT divide

15

Erythrocytes

-biconcave discs, anucleate, no organelles
- filled w/ 9Hb) hemoglobulin for gas transport
- contain the plasma membrane protein spectrin (lets it change shape)
- major factor when contributing to blood viscosity
- O2 loading in the lungs
(produces oxyhemoglobulin (ruby red))
-O2 unloading in tissues
(produces deoxyhemoglbulin (dark red))

16

Hemaopoiesis

blood cell formation
- occurs in red bone marrow of axial skeleton, girdles, and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur

17

where is red blood cell formation?

Occurs in red bone marrow of axial skeleton, girdles and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur

18

Hemocytoblasts (hematopoietic stem cells)

-give rise to all formed elements
-hormones and growth factors push cell to a pathway of blood cell development

19

Erythropoiesis (red blood cell production)

- a hemocytoblast is transformed into a proerythroblast
-proerythroblasts develop into early erythroblasts and continue

20

RBC formation phases

1. Stem cell (hemocytoblast)
2. committed cell (proerythroblast)
3. developmental pathway
3.a. Phase 1, ribosome synthesis (early erythroblast)
3.b Phase 2, hemoglobulin accumulation, (late erythroblast/normoblast)
3.c. Phase 3, ejection of nucleus, (reticulocyte)
4. erythrocyte

21

regulation of RBCs.
Too many RBCs?
Not enough RBCs?

too many cause increased blood viscosity
not enough can cause hypoxia

22

hormonal control of erythropoiesis by

erythropoietin (EPO)

23

Erythropoietin

direct stimulus for erythropoiesis
released by the kidney in response to hypoxia

24

What are some causes of hypoxia?

- hemorrhage or increased RBC destruction reduces RBC numbers
-insufficient hemoglobulin (ex: iron deficiency)
-reduced availability of O2 (ex: high altitudes)

25

Effects of EPO

- more rapid maturation of committed bone marrow cells
-increased circulatory reticulocyte in 1/2 days
-Testosterone also enhances EPO production, resulting in higher RBCs count in males

26

homeostasis of normal blood oxygen levels

1. Stimulus; hypoxia, decreased RBC count, hemoglobulin, O2 availability
2. Kidney (and liver to a smaller extent) releases erythropoietin
3. erythropoietin stimulates red bone marrow
4. Enhanced erythropoiesis increases RBCs
5. O2 carrying ability of blood increases

27

Lifespan of RBCs

-100-120 days
- old rbcs become fragile, Hb degenerates
-macrophages engulf dyings rbcs in the SPLEEN
-heme and globin are separated
- iron is salvaged for reuse
- heme is degraded to yeloow pigment bilirubin
-liver secretes bilirubin (in bile) into the intestines
- degraded pigments leave the body in feces as stercobilin (BROOWN POOP)
- globin is metabolized into amino acids

28

anemia:

=-blood has abnormally low O2 carrying capacity
- sign rather than a disease
-Blood O2 levels cant support normal metabolism
- accompanied by fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath, chills

29

1. insufficient erythrocytes

- hemorrhagic anemia acute/chronic loss of blood
-hemolytic anemia: RBCs rupture prematurely
-Aplastic anemia: destruction or inhibition of red bone marrow

30

2. low hemoglobin content

- iron deficiency anemia:
- 2ndary result of hemorrhagic anemia
-inadequate intake of iron-containing foods
-impaired iron absorption
-pernicious anemia:
-deficiency of vitamin b12
-lack of intrinsic factor (produced in tummy) needed for absorption of b12
-treated by instramuscular inection of b12 or nascobal

31

3. abnormal hemoglobin

- thalassemias:
- faulty globin (protein) chain
- RBCS are thin. delicate, and deficient in Hb
-Sickle cell anemia:
- defective gene codes for abnormal HbS
-causes RBCs to become sickle shaped in low oxygen situations

32

Polycythemia

excess of RBCs that increase blood viscosity

33

polycythemia results from

-polycythemia vera - bone marrow cancer
-2ndary polycythemia- when less O2 is available (high altitude) or wen EPO production increases
-Blood doping

34

RBCs membranes bear 30 types of _________ antigens that are

-glycoprotein
-perceived as foreign when blood is transfused and mismatched
-unique to each person
-promoters pf agglutination (agglutinogens)

35

presence or absence of each antigen is used to ________ blood cells into different groups

classify

36

antigens of the _____ and _____ blood groups cause vigorous transfusion reactions

ABO and Rh

37

ABO blood groups

A,B,AB,O

38

based on presence or absence of two __________ (A and B) on the surface of the RBCs

agglutinogens

39

Blood may contain Anti-A or Anti-B ________ that act against transfused RBCs with ABO antigens not normally present

antibodies

40

ANti-A or Anti- B form in the _______ at 2 months old

blood

41

AB blood cells has surface marker ____ and ____

A and B

42

B blood cells has surface marker _____ and anti-____

B and ant-A

43

A blood cells has surface marker ___ and Anti-___

A markers and anti-B

44

O blood type has no surface markers but has anti

A and B

45

there are 45 diff. Rh

aggultinogens (Rh factors)

46

C,D and E are the ______ common (Rh blood groups)

most

47

____ indicates presence of D

Rh+

48

Anti-Rh antibodies are not spontaneously formed in

Rh- individuals

49

Anti-Rh antibodies form if an _____ individual receives _____ blood

Rh-
Rh+

50

a second exposure to Rh+ blood will result in a

typical transfusion reaction

51

Homeostatic imbalance: hemolytic disease of the newborn

also called erythroblastosis fetalis

52

erythroblastosis fetalis

Rh- mother becomes sensitized when exposed to Rh+ blood cause her body to synthesize anti-Rh antibodies

Anti-Rh antibodies cross placenta and destroys RBCs of an Rh+ baby

53

erythroblastosis fetalis treatment

-the baby can be treated w prebirth transfusion and exchange transfusions after birth
-

54

______ serum containing _____can prevent the Rh- mother from becoming sensitized

RhoGAM
Anti-Rh

55

When serum containing anti-A or Anti-B aggultinins is added to blood, agglutination (______) will occur between the agglutinin and the corresponding ________

clumping, agglutinogens

56

positive reactions indicate _____

agglutination

57

Type A blood (contain agglutinogen A; agglutinates with _____

Anti- A

58

Type B blood (contains agglutinogen B; agglutinates with _____

Anti-B

59

Type AB blood (contains aggltinogens A and B; agglutinates w ____)

both serums

60

diagnostic blood tests

-hematocrit
-blood glucose tests
-microscopic examination reveals variations in size and shape of RBCS, indications of anemias
-differential WBC count
-PROTHROMBIN time and platlet counts asses hemostasis
-SMAC, blood chemistry profile
-CBC