Chapter 17 Part 2- Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Part 2- Blood Deck (86):
1

Leukopoiesis

production of WBCs

2

What is Leukopoiesis stimulated by?

chemical messengers from bone marrow and mature WBCs

3

where do all leukocytes originate from?

hemocytoblasts

4

what is the blood voume level of WBCs?

<1%

5

how can WBCs leave capillaries?

via diapedsis

6

How do WBCs move through tissue spaces?

by ameboid movement and positive chemotaxis

7

Granulocytes

Neutrohils, eosinophils, and basophils

8

what are granulocytes?

-cytoplasmic granules
-larger and shorter lived than RBCs
-lobed nuclei
-phagocytic

9

Neutrophils

-most numerous WBCs
-6hrs -> a few days
-fine granules
-pruple cytoplasm when stained
-graules contain hydrolytic enzymes or defensins
-very phagocytic- "bacteria slayers"
-ANC of 2500-6000 is normal

10

What WBC is most numerous?

neutrophils

11

Neutrophil graules contain ______ enzymes or ______

hydrolytic
defensins

12

what WBC is a bacteria slayer that is very phagocytic?

Neutrophils

13

Eosinphils

-red staining, bilobed nuceli
-red (acidophilic) Coarse, lysosome-like granules
-digest parasitic worms that are too large to phagocytized
-modulators of immune respone
-8->12 days, circulate 4/5 days

14

What WBC is able to digest parasiti worms that can not be phagocytized?

eosinphils

15

what WBC modulates the immune system?

Eosinphils

16

Basophils

-rarest WBCs
-large, purplish-black (basophilic) graules contain histamine.
-functionally similar to mast cells
-few hours to a few days

17

what is the rarest WBC?

basophils

18

histamine

an inflammatory chemical that a vasodilator and attracts other WBCs to inflamed sites

19

What WBCs contain histamine?

Basophil

20

what WBC is similar to mast cells?

basophils

21

how long is basophils life span?

few hours to a few days

22

Agranulocyte

lymphocytes and monocytes

23

what are agranulocytes?

lack visible cytoplasmic granules, have spherical or kidney shaped nuclei

24

Lymphocytes

-large, dark pruple, circular nuclei with a thin rom of blue cytoplasm
-crucial to immunity
- two types:
T cells and Bcells

25

What WBC is crucial to immunity?

lymphocytes

26

a large, dark purple, circular nuclei with a thin blue rim of cytoplasm

lymphocytes

27

what are the two types of cells in a lymphocyte?

T cells and B cells

28

what is a t cell?

act against virus infected cells and tumor cells- memory, cytotoxic, regulatory (suppressor, helper, natural killer

29

how long can memorycells live?

years or atleast months

30

what is a b cell?

give rise to plasma cells which produce antibodies

31

Monocytes

-largest leukocyte
-abundant pale blue cytoplasm
-dark purple staining, u- or kidneyshaped nuclei
-leave circulation, enter tissues, and differentiate into macrophasges
-activate lymphocytes to mount an immune response
-hours to day

32

T cells start the process to what

celluar immunity

33

monocytes are the largest WBCs? T/f

T

34

this WBC has an abundant pale blue cytoplasm

monocytes

35

dark purple staining, u or kidney shaped nuclei

monocytes

36

this WBC is an actively phagocytic cell that is crucial against viruses, intracellular bacteria parasites, and chronic infection

monocytes

37

what WBC can differentiate into macrophages>

monocytes

38

which WBC leave the circulation and go adventure for the nasty infection?

Monocytes

39

What WBC activate lymphocyte to mount an immune response?

monocytes

40

leukopenia

abnormally low blood count- drug induced

41

cancerous condition involving WBCs
-named according to abnormal WBC clone involved

Leukemias

42

myelocytic leukemia

involve myeloblasts

43

lymphocytic leukemia

involves lymphocytes

44

what leukemia involves blast-type cells and primarily affects children

acute leukemia

45

what leukemia is more prevalent in older people

chronic leukemia

46

leukemia

-bone marrow totally occupied w cancerous leukocytes
-immature nonfunctional WBCs in the bloodstream
-death caused by internal hemorrhage and overwhelming infections
- treatments include irradiation, antileukemic drugs, and stem cell transplants

47

platelets

-small fragments of megakaryocytes
-formed by thrombopoietin
-blue staining outer region, purple granules
- granules contain serotonin, Ca2+ enzymes, ADP, platelet derive growth factor
- form temp. plug that eal breaks in B.V
-circulating platelets are kept inactive and mobile by NO and prostacyclin from endothelial cells of blood essels

48

what are small fragements that are made of megakaryocytes?

platelets

49

platelets are regulated by

thrombopoietin

50

what are the granules in a platelets created of>

serotonin, Ca2+, enzymes, ADP, and platelet derived growth factor

51

what type of ADP do platelets granules have?

a chemical,not energy

52

what forms a temporary plug that helps seal breaks in blood vessels?

platelets

53

circulating platelets are kept _______ and _____ by NO (nitrous oxide) and prostacyclin from endothelial cells of BV

inactive and mobile

54

Hemostasis

3 steps
1. vascular spasm
2. platelets plug formation
3. Coagulation (blood clotting)

55

Step 1- vascular spasm

smooth muscles contract, vasoconstriction, slowing down blood flow

56

step 2- platelet plug formation

collagen fibers get exposed' platelets adhere. platelets release chemicals that make nearby platelets sticky; platelet plug formation

57

step 3- coagulation

fibrin forms a mesh that traps RBC and platelets, forming the clot

58

vascular spasm

vasoconstriction of damaged BV

59

vasoconstriction is triggerd by

-direct injury
-chemicals released by endothelial cells and platlets
-pain reflexes

60

HEMOSTASIS IS A WHAT FEEDBACK MECHANISM

POSITIVE

61

platelet plug formation

@ the site of injury platlets,
- stick to exposed collagen with the help of VON willibren factor, a plasma protein
-swell, become spiky and sticky, release chemical messengers (their granule)

62

What two chemicals are released in platelet plug formation

-ADP and serotonin

63

how is ADP used as a chemical messenger in platlet plug formation

casues more platlet to stick and release their contents

64

where are the two chemical messangers in platelet plug formation from?

the granulocyte from platelets

65

serotonin and thromboxane A2lug formation?

enhances vascular spasm and more platelet aggregation

66

coagulation

a set of reaction in which blood is transformed from a liquid to a gel
-reinforces the platelet plug formation

67

3 phases of coagulation

1. prothrombin activator is formed (intrinsic and extrinsic pathways)
2. prothrombin is converted into thrombin
3. Thrombin catalyzes the jioining of fibrinogen to form a fibrin mesh

68

phase 1 of coagulation - two pathways

intrinsic and extrinsic

69

the intrinsic athway of coagulation

triggered by tissue damaging events
-activated platelets, collagen

70

the extrinsic pathway of coagulation

is triggered by exposure to tissue factor(TF) or plasma factor (an extrinsic factor) outside the circulatory system (due to damaged vessel)

71

coagulation phase 2; pathway to thrombin

- prothrombin activator (12 coagulation factor) catalyzes trainformation of prothrombin (a glycoprotein found in plasma) to the active anzyme thrombin (which changes fibrinogen into fibrin)

72

coagulation phase 3- common pathway to the fibrin mesh

-thrombin convert fibrinogen into fibrin
-firin strands form structural base of clot
-fibrin causes plasma to become gel like trap for formed elements
-thrombin (w Ca2+) activates cloting factor XIII -cross link fibrin
-strengthen and stabilize the clot

73

clot retraction is _____ of a blood clot over a number of days

shrinking
-edges of the BV wall at injury are slowly brought together again

74

___ and _____ in platelets contract in 30-60 min

actin and myosin

75

platelets pull on the _____ strands, squeezing ____ from the clot

fibrin, serum

76

clot repair

platelet derived growth fctor (PDGF) stimulates divison of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to rebuild BV walls

77

____________ stimulates endothelial cells to multiply and restore the endothelial lining

vascular endothelial growth factor

78

fibrinolysis

-prevents blood clots from growning
-begin in 2 days
-plasminogen in clot converted to plasmin
-plasmin is a fibrin-digesting enzymes

79

what cleaves the fibrin mesh at various places, leading to circulating fragments that are clared by other proteases or by the kidney and liver

fibrinolysis

80

_____ in clot is converted to plasmin

plasminogen

81

____ is a fibrin digesting enzyme

plasmin

82

factors preventing undesirable clotting (platelets adhesion is prevented by

-smooth endothelial lining of BV
-antithrombic substances nitric oxide and prostacyclin secreted by endothelial cells
-vit E quinine, which acts as a potent anticoagulant

83

___________ which act as a potent anticoagulant

Vit. E quinine

84

hemostasis disorders

thromboembolytic disorders- undesirable clot formation
bleeding disorder- abnormalties that prevent normal clot formation

85

thromboembolytic disorders

undesirable clot formation

86

bleeding disorder

abnormalties that prevent normal clot formation