Chapter 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (33):
1

Bit

the smallest piece of digital data, either a “1” or a “0”.

2

Skid

A skid occurs when the tires of a vehicle stop rotating (or rotate very slowly) while the car continues to move forward.

3

Kinetic energy

The energy associated with the motion of an object and determined by the expression KE = ½ mv2

4

Dynamic loads

Combined weight imposed upon a structure that may vary greatly over time. Also called live loads.

5

Identification analysis

Method for identifying the relevant features of a piece of evidence with as much certainty as possible, leading to an unambiguous identification of the material.

6

Inelastic collision

a collision were some or all of the kinetic is converted into other forms of energy, such as work or thermal energy.

7

Fatigue

A cumulative and progressive process that results in eventual damage to building materials, often through repetition of certain types of movements or pressures.

8

Forensic engineering

The field dealing with the legal investigation of how materials, processes, structures and objects fail in their intended function. The field also informs legal proceedings regarding accident reconstruction, tracking cyber-crime, and related functions.

9

Elastic Collision

a collision where the amount of kinetic energy is the same before and after the collision.

10

Gravitational acceleration (g)

a constant on Earth indicating how fast an object is accelerated by gravity.

11

Factor of safety (FS)

The ability of a structure to hold loads beyond those anticipated from the total of static and dynamic loads.

12

Force (F)

the impetus given to an object and defined as mass times acceleration.

13

Forensic failure analysis

Investigations that deal with trying to determine why certain processes, materials, structures or components failed in the performance of their intended function.

14

Frictional coefficient (f)

A numeric value that indicates the resistance an object encounters when moving over another surface.

15

Operating System

The software that controls and runs the basic functions of the computer.

16

RAM

Random Access Memory.

17

ROM

Read Only Memory, digital memory that cannot be written over but can be read by a computer.

18

Persistent data

data stored on a hard drive that remains after a computer is turned off.

19

Margin of Safety (MoS)

The ratio of the actual strength of the structure to the required strength of the structure.

20

Byte

a piece of digital information made up of eight bits. Kb is a kilobyte (1000 Bytes) and MB is a megabyte (1,000,000 bytes).

21

Comparison analysis

A method that attempts to associate a standard reference sample of known origin to a sample of unknown origin.

22

CD-ROM

Compact Disk Read-Only Memory.

23

Work (W)

energy used to move a mass through a distance and defined as force times distance

24

Wire-tap

monitoring of communications transmissions.

25

Volatile data

data stored in memory (often RAM) that is lost when the computer powers off.

26

Static loads

Refers to the combined weight imposed upon a structure from relatively unchanging, or only very slowly changing, features of a structure. Sometime called a dead load.

27

Conservation of energy

The principle that states that energy may be converted between its different forms but the total energy of an isolated system must remain constant.

28

Cyclic loads

Forces on a structure that are occur over and over and can lead to fatigue and damage to building materials, sometimes considered a specific example of a dynamic load. Cyclic loads may occur from vibrations or heating/cooling cycles, for example.

29

Design load

The expected actual load planned for a building.

30

Crush energy

The amount of energy required to cause an observed indentation in a material. Usually given by E = Kx (where K is the measured crush coefficient for the car, x is the crush depth measured from the crashed car).

31

Crush depth

The distance that a given part of a car is indented from a collision.

32

Conservation of momentum

The principle that states that the total momentum of an isolated system must remain constant.

33

Cybersecurity

The field that deals with providing integrity and trust to both stored data and information passing through computer-mediated channels.