Chapter 18 & 19 Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 & 19 Blood Deck (65):
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Cardiovascular system BLOOD functions:

1) transportation
-removes waste
-o2 & co2

2) Homeostasis (regulation)
-body temperature
-body ph
-fluid balance

3) Immune protection

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Cardiovascular system locations (blood vessels)

Capillaries- exchange

Veins - carry blood to heart

Arteries- carry blood away from heart

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Cardiovascular system characteristics of BLOOD:

1. Volume (men's= 5-6L/Women= 4-5L)
2. Viscosity (4-5x thicker than h20)
3. Blood PH ( 7.35-7.45) (slightly alkaline)
4. Blood Temperature (38 Celsius/100.4 F)
5. Color

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Physical composition of Blood: (%)

1. Formed elements (45%)
2. Plasma (55%)

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Formed Elements

(45%)

1) Erythrocytes (RBC) 44%: transports o2/co2

Both leukocyte & platelets =1%

2) Leukocyte (WBC): motile immune cells

3) Platelets: blood clotting = repair broken blood vessels

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Plasma

55% =Extra cellular fluid of our blood

-92% H2o

-1% dissolved Solutes
(Na, nutrients,wastes,hormones)

-7% proteins

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Actual hematocrit

% of blood = erythrocytes

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Critical hematocrit

% of all formed elements

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Plasma protein functions

-transporters(fatty acids,iron, hormones)

-proteins & Solutes control fluid level of blood

-Helps keep H2o in blood

-antibodies (y-shaped, binds to foreign substances)

-clotting factors

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Types of proteins in plasma and their %

1) albumin= 58%

-transporters (fatty acids, hormones)
-proteins & Solutes help control fluid level of blood

2) globulins= 37%
-Alpha: transports lipids
-Beta: transports iron
-Gamma: antibodies

3) Fibrinogen= 4% (clotting factor)

4) regulatory hormones/enzymes = 1%

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Leukocyte

Motile immune cells

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Diapedisis

Immune cells travel In blood, when activated they squeeze out of blood vessel to the site where needed

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Chemotaxis

Move towards specific chemicals

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Types of leukocytes

1)Granulocytes

-neutrophil
-Eosinophils
-Basophils

2) Agranulocytes

-lymphocyte
-monocytes


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Granulocytes

Neutrophil

Eosinophils

Basophils

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Agranulocytes

Lymphocyte

Monocytes

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Neutrophil

(Cytoplasm contains neutral colored granules)

(50-70% of leukocytes)

1) first responder to infection
2) pale granules in cytoplasm
3)multilobed nucleus
4) in our puss

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Eosinophils

(1-4% of leukocytes) (red/pink granules)

(Phagocytize: antibody-antigen complexes)

1) allergens will eat
2) bilobed nucleus

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Basophils

(0.5%-1% of leukocytes)

1) blue granules
2) bilobed nucleus
3) make heparin & histamine

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Heparin

-Anticoagulant (prevents blood clotting)

-Brings more leukocytes to site of infection

-inactivates thrombin

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Histamine

Recruit/signal for more leukocytes

(runny nose, watery eyes)

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Lymphocytes

(20-40% of leukocytes) (large nucleus)

Types:

1) Natural killers: killing abnormal cells in body

2) B lymphocyte: make our antibodies/gamma globulins) (mature bone marrow)

3) T lymphocyte: manage a direct immune response) (thymus)

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Natural killer cells

Killing abnormal cells in the body

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B lymphocyte

make our antibodies/gamma globulins) (mature bone marrow)

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T lymphocyte

Manage a direct immune response (thymus)

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Monocytes

(2-8 % of leukocyte)

10-12 days in blood & then leave blood stream in macrophage

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Hemopoesis

All formed elements in blood

Types:

Erythrocytes = erythropoiesis
Leukocytes= leukopoiesis
Platelets= thrombopoiesis

(ALL signaled by growth factors or hormones)

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Albumin

58% of proteins

-transporters (fatty acids, iron, hormones)

-proteins & Solutes help control fluid level of blood)

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Globulins

37% of proteins

- Alpha ,Beta, Gamma

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Alpha Globulins

Transports lipids

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Beta Globulins

Transports iron

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Gamma Globulins

Antibodies

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Growth factor

Signaling molecule that binds to receptors, changes the transcript ion & translation to make new proteins which cause growth & maturation of certain cells.

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Multi-CSF

(Multi-colony-stimulating factor)

Goes to:

-erythropoiesis
-thrombopoiesis
-leukopoiesis

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G-CSF

Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor

Goes to:

-granulocyte & monocytes

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Hemocytoblast

1) Pluripotent cells
-->can become many different cells

2) two different lines for blood cell development
-->Myeloid Cell & Lymphoid Cell

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Lymphoid Cell in leukopoiesis

1) Natural killer cells

2) B lymphocyte

3) T lymphocyte

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GM-CSF

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

-basophils
-eosinophils
-neutrophils

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Erythropoiesis

Starts at Myeloid cell (multi-CSF)
-->proerythroblast (EPO=erythropoietin senses O2)
-->Erythroblast (starts making hemoglobin)
-->normoblast (keeps making hemoglobin) (nucleus ejected)
-->reticulocytes (hemoglobin & ribosomes in blood stream)
-->Erythrocytes = bag of hemoglobin

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Thrombopoiesis

Starts at Myeloid Cell (multi-CSF) (liver/spleen)

-->Megakarytocyte

(Largest of blood cells)
(sits outside endothelium)
(long arm like extension protrude through and break off becoming platelets)

-->platelets

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Leukopoiesis in Myeloid cell

GM-CSF

-->G-CSF-->Granulocytes
(Eosinophils, Basophils, neutrophils)

-->M-CSF -->Monocytes

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Hemoglobin

*quaternary Structure
-4 polypeptides
(2 alpha/2 beta) which contain a chemical group called Heme.

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Heme Group

Heme group is a Chemical group that holds onto iron (fe) & Iron holds molecule of oxygen weakly to deliver to tissue

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Erythrocytes

(Giant bag of hemoglobin)

--> have 280 million hemoglobin
--> short life span (120 days)

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Dead Erythrocytes

In liver/spleen due to macrophages which break down into:

1. Globulin--> amino Acids

2. Heme-->bilirubin enters small intestine as part of livers bile-->brown poop

3. Iron (fe)-->bind to a protective protein transferrin to recycle into more RBC

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Hemostasis

Process which a blood vessel is sealed up

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Normal Blood vessel characteristics

Lumen : Hole through which blood flows

Endothelium: simple squamous epithelium
--->covered in a eicosanoid called prostacyclin

smooth muscle: (vasoconstriction/vasodilation)

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Prostacyclin

Prevents abnormal coagulation of our platelets

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Stimulus of hemostasis

Broken blood vessel

(not smooth, exposed muscle cells & collagen fibers)

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Hemostasis steps:

1. Vascular Spasm phase
2. Platelet plug phase
3. Coagulation phase

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Vascular spasm phase

-->Smooth muscle vasoconstricting to limit blood loss
-->endothelial cells were expressing Eicosanoid (prostacyclin)

- stop expressing prostacyclin
-start expressing chemicals: smooth muscle contraction

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Platelet plug phase

(Exposed Connective Tissue due to damage)

-exposed collagen fibers bind to a protein called the Von willebrand factor

-the Von willebrand factor binds to platelets

-platelets change shape & become sticky to form the platelet plug

-platelets secrete ADP & Thromboxane

(ADP recruits more platelets)
(Thromboxane A2 prolong vascular spasms)

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Coagulation signaling cascade

1. Products of the first enzyme become the reactants of the second.

2. Several steps ] more than 1 place to regulate

3. Enzymes --> signaling can be massive

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Coagulation phase

Intrinsic pathway
*stimulus= damage to inside of blood vessels

Extrinsic pathway
*stimulus=damage to outside of blood vessels

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Intrinsic pathway

(12-11-9-8-->10)

1. Platelets release factor XII (12)
2. Factor XII converts inactive XI (11) to Active XI
3. Factor XI converts inactive IX (9) to Active IX
4. Factor IX binds to Ca2 & platelet factor 3 that converts inactive factor VIII (8) to Active factor VIII
5. Factor VIII converts inactive factor X (10) to Active Factor X

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Extrinsic Pathway

1. Damaged tissue releases thromboplastin binding with factor VII & Ca2

2. converting inactive X to active factor X.

3. Factor X binds to Factor II, factor V, Ca2, & platelet factor 3 to form a prothrombin Activator

4. Prothrombin Activator activates Thrombin

5. Soluble fibrinogen converts to insoluble fibrin

Final Step: Factor XIII (13) forms cross link Fibrin creating a net to trap RBC, WBC, & platelets

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Hemophilia

Genetic disease (error in gene make factor VIII)

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Coumadin (warfarin)

Inhibits the livers synthesis of:

(Factor II, V, VII, IX, X)

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Similarities in cardiac & skeletal

Striations
-sarcomeres, z discs, etc.
-cross bridge cycling

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How the Action potential travels in cardiac & skeletal:


*skeletal=initiated by a nervous system
*cardiac=AP travels through intercalated
discs (gap junctions)

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Shape of cardiac & skeletal

2. Shape of cell
*cardiac=short/branched
*skeletal=long/unbranched/many nuclei

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Cardiac cells Always need:

cardiac cells always need lots of energy & use aerobic respiration, glucose, fatty acids, lactate, and ketone bodies


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Involuntary vs voluntary/motor system of cardiac & skeletal :

Cardiac= involuntary
*autonomic motor system
-sympathetic= speeds up heart rate
-parasympathetic=lowers heart rate
(Both controlled by medulla)

Skeletal=voluntary
*somatic motor system

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Calcium location/location of pumps & channels

Myofibers: SR--> Ca pumps, channels
Cardiac: 70% calcium pumped into SR
30% calcium is pumped out of cells

(Pumps & channel in SR & plasma membrane)

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Resting length of cardiac & skeletal

Myofibers: Length at which the Actin & Myosin
overlapped to create the maximal #
of cross bridges through out the
contraction.
(@ rest = muscles not contracting)

Cardiac: when blood has stretched out of the
chambers of the heart.