Discuss what it takes to be world class.
You should strive for world-class excellence, which means using the very best and latest knowledge and ideas to operate at the highest standards of any place anywhere. Sustainable greatness comes from, among other things, having strong core values, living those values constantly, striving for continuous improvement, experimenting, and always trying to do better tomorrow than today. It is essential to not fall prey to the tyranny(制圧） of the or; that is, the belief that one important goal can be attained only at the expense of another. The genius of the and is that multiple important goals can be achieved simultaneously and synergistically.
Describe how to manage and lead change effectively.
Effective change management occurs when the organization moves from its current state to a desired future state without excessive cost to the organization or its people. People resist change for a variety of reasons, including inertia, poor timing, surprise, peer pressure, self-interest, misunderstanding, different information about (and assessments of) the change, and management’s tactics.
Motivating people to change requires a general process of unfreezing, moving, and refreezing, with the caveat that appropriate and not inappropriate behaviors be “refrozen.” More specific techniques to motivate people to change include education and communication, participation and involvement, facilitation and support, negotiation and rewards, manipulation and cooptation, and coercion. Each approach has strengths, weaknesses, and appropriate uses, and multiple approaches can be used. It is important to harmonize the multiple changes that are occurring throughout the organization.
Effective change requires active leadership, including creating a sense of urgency, forming a guiding coalition, developing a vision and strategy, communicating the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains and producing more change, and anchoring the new approaches in the culture.
List tactics for creating a successful future.
Preparing for an uncertain future requires a proactive approach. You can proactively forge the future by being a shaper more than an adapter, creating new competitive advantages, actively managing your career and your personal development, and becoming an active leader and a lifelong learner.
tyranny of the or
genius of the and(organizational ambidexterity)
tyranny of the or The belief that things must be either A or B and cannot be both; that only one goal and not another can be attained.
Many companies, and individuals, are plagued by the tyranny of the or.
genius of the and(organizational ambidexterity) (両手がきく/器用な）Ability to achieve multiple objectives simultaneously.
• Purpose beyond profit and pragmatic pursuit of profit.
• Relatively fixed core values and vigorous change and movement.
• Conservatism with the core values and bold business moves.
• Clear vision and direction and experimentation.
• Stretch goals and incremental progress.
• Control based on values and operational freedom.
• Long-term thinking and investment and demand for short-term results.
• Visionary, futuristic thinking and daily, nuts-and-bolts execution.
organization development (OD)
organization development (OD) The systemwide application of behavioral science knowledge to develop, improve, and reinforce the strategies, structures, and processes that lead to organizational effectiveness.
Two features of organization development are important to note.
First, it aims to increase organizational effectiveness—improving the organization’s ability to deal with customers, stockholders, governments, employees, and other stakeholders, which results in better-quality products, higher financial returns, and high quality of work life.
Second, OD has an important underlying value orientation: it supports human potential, development, and participation in addition to performance and competitive advantage.
General Reasons for Resistance
• Inertia(不活発，無気力). Usually people don’t want to disturb the status quo(現状). The old ways of doing things are comfortable and easy, so people don’t want to shake things up and try something new. For example, it is easier to keep living in the same apartment or house than to move to another.
• Timing. People often resist change because of poor timing. Maybe you would like to move to a different place to live, but do you want to move this week? Even if a place were available, you probably couldn’t take the time. If managers or employees are unusually busy or under stress, or if relations between management and workers are strained, the timing is wrong for introducing new proposals. Where possible, managers should introduce change when people are receptive.
• Surprise. One key aspect of timing and receptivity is surprise. If the change is sudden, unexpected, or extreme, resistance may be the initial—almost reflexive—reaction. Suppose your university announced an increase in tuition, effective at the beginning of next term. Wouldn’t you at least want more warning, so you might be prepared? Managers or others initiating a change often forget that others haven’t given the matter much thought; the change leaders need to allow time for others to think about the change and prepare for it.
• Peer pressure. Sometimes work teams resist new ideas. Even if individual members do not strongly oppose a change suggested by management, the team may band together in opposition. If a group is highly cohesive and has anti-management norms (recall Chapter 14), peer pressure will cause individuals to resist even reasonable changes. Of course, peer pressure can be a positive force, too. Change leaders who invite—and listen to—ideas from team members may find that peer pressure becomes a driving force behind the change’s success.
Change-Specific Reasons for Resistance
• Self-interest. Most people care less about the organization’s best interest than they do about their own best interests. They will resist a change if they think it will cause them to lose something of value. What could people fear to lose? At worst, their jobs, if management is considering closing down a plant. A merger, reorganization, or technological change could create the same fear. Other possible fears include loss of the feeling of being competent in a familiar job, expectations that the job will become more difficult or time-consuming, uncertainty about whether enough training or other resources will be provided for succeeding at the change, and concerns about the organization’s future, given that management wasn’t satisfied with the status quo.組織ではなく自分の事を最優先。自分を脅かすかも知れない変化が起ころうとしているのだったら変化を嫌悪する。
• Misunderstanding. Even when management proposes a change that will benefit everyone, people may resist because they don’t fully understand it. People may not see how the change fits with the firm’s strategy, or they simply may not see the change’s advantage over current practices.
• Different assessments. Employees receive different—and usually less— information than management receives. Even within top management ranks, some executives know more than others do. Such discrepancies cause people to develop different assessments of proposed changes. Some may be aware that the benefits outweigh the costs, while others may see only the costs and not perceive the advantages. This is a common problem when management announces a change, say, in work procedures, and doesn’t explain to employees why the change is needed. Management expects advantages in terms of increased efficiency, but workers may see the change as another arbitrary, ill-informed management rule that causes headaches for those who must carry it out.個々が持つ情報の量が異なる。これによりchangeに対して個々は異なる評価を持つ。
• Management tactics. Sometimes a change that is successful elsewhere is undertaken in a new location, and problems may arise during the transfer. Management may attempt to force the change and may fail to address concerns in order to develop employee commitment. Or it may fail to provide the necessary resources, knowledge, or leadership to help the change succeed. Sometimes a change receives so much exposure and glorification that employees resent it and resist. Managers who overpromise what they—or the change—can deliver may discover that the next time they want to introduce a change, they have lost credibility, so employees resist.
A General Model for Managing Resistance
unfreezing, moving to institute the change, and refreezing.
Motivating people to change often requires three basic stages: unfreezing, moving to institute the change, and refreezing.
unfreezing Realizing that current practices are inappropriate and that new behavior is necessary.
moving Instituting the change.
refreezing Strengthening the new behaviors that support the change.