Chapter 19 A&P of Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology II Lab > Chapter 19 A&P of Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 19 A&P of Digestive System Deck (13):
1

Physical Breakdown of Food

starts in the mouth; teeth and tongue help break food down into smaller sizes, making them more easily digested. Bile, created by the liver, emulsifies fats in small intestines. Rhythmic Segmentation in the small intestine is when the muscles of the wall constrict sharply as food passes through. Creates segments in small intestine but also further breaks down food.

2

Chemical Breakdown of Food

digestive enzymes secreted by various digestive organs help breakdown fats, proteins and carbs into their simpler forms. Simpler forms then undergo absorption in the small intestine into the blood or lymph.

3

Amylase

found in saliva, lubricates food to aid in swallowing. Break down complex carbohydrates such as starch into simple sugars.

4

Lipase

breakdown fats into fatty acids and glycerol; lipolytic enzyme

5

Pepsinogen

inactive form of pepsin produced in the stomach, stomach acid (HCl) activates it into pepsin.

6

Pancreatin

secreted by pancreas, contains lipase and amylase; breaks down carbs and fats

7

Pepsin

proteolytic enzyme, breaks down proteins into amino acids.

8

Salivary Glands

Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual gland; all exocrine glands (each has a duct that carries saliva in oral cavity)

9

Teeth

2 incisors (involved in initial bite), 1 canine (rips food), 2 premolars (grind food), 3 molars (grind food) per each quadrant of mouth

10

Stomach

expandable pouch-like container located below diaphragm; cardia, fundus, body, pylorus.

11

Small Intestine

absorption occurs here, contains villi with increase surface area allowing nutrients to be absorbed more efficiently. Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum.

12

Large Intestine

removes excess water from bolus to create stool.

13

Accessory Organs

Liver- produces bile
Gallbladder- stores and concentrates bile
Pancreas- secretes pancreatin into duodenum of small intestine