Flashcards in Chapter 19 A&P of Digestive System Deck (13):
Physical Breakdown of Food
starts in the mouth; teeth and tongue help break food down into smaller sizes, making them more easily digested. Bile, created by the liver, emulsifies fats in small intestines. Rhythmic Segmentation in the small intestine is when the muscles of the wall constrict sharply as food passes through. Creates segments in small intestine but also further breaks down food.
Chemical Breakdown of Food
digestive enzymes secreted by various digestive organs help breakdown fats, proteins and carbs into their simpler forms. Simpler forms then undergo absorption in the small intestine into the blood or lymph.
found in saliva, lubricates food to aid in swallowing. Break down complex carbohydrates such as starch into simple sugars.
breakdown fats into fatty acids and glycerol; lipolytic enzyme
inactive form of pepsin produced in the stomach, stomach acid (HCl) activates it into pepsin.
secreted by pancreas, contains lipase and amylase; breaks down carbs and fats
proteolytic enzyme, breaks down proteins into amino acids.
Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual gland; all exocrine glands (each has a duct that carries saliva in oral cavity)
2 incisors (involved in initial bite), 1 canine (rips food), 2 premolars (grind food), 3 molars (grind food) per each quadrant of mouth
expandable pouch-like container located below diaphragm; cardia, fundus, body, pylorus.
absorption occurs here, contains villi with increase surface area allowing nutrients to be absorbed more efficiently. Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum.
removes excess water from bolus to create stool.