Chapter 19 Vocab Flashcards Preview

Chemistry Chapters 16-20 > Chapter 19 Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 19 Vocab Deck (29):
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Monoprotic acids

Acids that contain one ionizable hydrogen, (such as nitric acid (HNO3))

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Diprotic acids

Acids that contain 2 ionizable hydrogens (such as sulfuric acid (H2SO4))

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Triprotic acids

Acids that contain three ionizable hydrogens (such as phosphoric acid (H3PO4))

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Conjugate acid

The particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion

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Conjugate base

The particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion

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Conjugate acid-base pair

Consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion

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Hydronium ion (H3O+)

A water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion becomes a positively charged this

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Lewis acid

A substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond

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Lewis base

A substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond

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Self-ionization

The reaction in which water molecules produce ions

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Neutral solution

Any aqueous solution in which [H+] and [OH-] are equal

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Ion-product constant for water (Kw)

The product of concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water

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Acidic solution

One in which [H+] is greater than [OH-]

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Basic solution

One in which [H+] is less than [OH-]

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Alkaline solutions

Basic solutions are also known a this

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PH

The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration

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Strong acids

Are completely ionized in aqueous solution

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Weak acids

Ionize only slightly in aqueous solution

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Acid dissociation constant (Ka)

The ratio of the concentration of the dissociated (or ionized) form of an acid to the concentration of the I dissociated (nonionized) form

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Strong bases

Dissociate completely into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

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Weak bases

React with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base

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Base dissociation constant (Kb)

The ratio of the concentration of the conjugate acid times the concentration of the hydroxide ion to the concentration of the base

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Neutralization reactions

Reactions in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce salt and water

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Titration

The process of adding a known amount of solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of another solution

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Standard solution

The solution of known concentration

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End point (of the titration)

The point at which the indicator changes color

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Salt hydrolysis

The cations or anions of a dissociated salt remove hydrogen ions from or donate hydrogen ions to water

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Buffer

A solution in which the pH remains relatively constant when small amounts of acid or base are added

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Buffer capacity

The amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer solution before a significant change in pH occurs