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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (63)
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1
Q

a neuron’s often bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

A

Dendrites

2
Q

the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands

A

axon

3
Q

the cell’s life-support center (of a neuron)

A

Cell Body

4
Q

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.

A

Action Potential

5
Q

a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next

A

Myelin Sheath

6
Q

a part of the neuron that forms junctions with other cells

A

Terminal branches of axon

7
Q

the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes.

A

Biological Psychology

8
Q

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

A

neuron

9
Q

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they may also play a role in learning, thinking, and memory

A

glial cells(glia)

10
Q

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

A

threshold

11
Q

a brief resting pause that occurs after a neuron has fired; subsequent action potentials cannot occur until the axon returns to its resting state.

A

refractory period

12
Q

a neuron’s reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing

A

all-or-none response

13
Q

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.

A

synapse

14
Q

a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron

A

reuptake

15
Q

“morphine within” – natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

A

endorphins

16
Q

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.

A

neurotransmitters

17
Q

a molecule that increases a neurotransmitter’s action

A

agonist

18
Q

a molecule that inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitter’s action

A

antagonist

19
Q

the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system

A

nervous system

20
Q

the brain and spinal cord

A

central nervous system (CNS)

21
Q

bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.

A

nerves

22
Q

neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

A

sensory (afferent) neurons

23
Q

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

A

motor (efferent) neurons

24
Q

neurons within the brain and spinal cord; communicate internally and process information between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

A

interneurons

25
Q

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system

A

somatic nervous system

26
Q

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart) Its sympathetic division arouses; it’s parasympathetic division calms.

A

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

27
Q

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing it’s energy

A

sympathetic nervous system

28
Q

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

A

parasympathetic nervous system

29
Q

a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

A

reflex

30
Q

the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

A

endocrine system

31
Q

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

A

hormones

32
Q

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress

A

adrenal glands

33
Q

the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, this gland regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

A

pituitary gland

34
Q

tissue destruction

A

lesion

35
Q

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain’s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

A

electroencephalogram (EEG)

36
Q

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a give task

A

PET scan

37
Q

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue.

A

MRI

38
Q

a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing succesive MRI scans.

A

fMRI

39
Q

the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; this is responsible for automatic survival functions

A

brainstem

40
Q

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

A

medulla

41
Q

the brain’s sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

A

thalamus

42
Q

a nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal

A

reticular formation

43
Q

the “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling noverbal learning and memory

A

cerebellum

44
Q

neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives

A

limbic system

45
Q

two lima-bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion

A

amygdala

46
Q

a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it direct several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature) helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.

A

hypothalamus

47
Q

a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

A

hippocampus

48
Q

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center

A

cerebral cortex

49
Q

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position

A

parietal

50
Q

portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements

A

frontal lobes

51
Q

portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily form the opposite ear

A

temporal lobes

52
Q

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

A

motor cortex

53
Q

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

A

motor cortex

54
Q

area at the front of parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

A

somatosensory cortex

55
Q

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

A

association areas

56
Q

the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

A

plasticity

57
Q

the formation of new neurons

A

neurogenesis

58
Q

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

A

corpus callosum

59
Q

a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them

A

split brain

60
Q

theory which held that bumps on the skull revealed mental abilities + character traits

A

Phrenology

61
Q

sends sensory information from tissue and sensory organs INWARD to the brain and spinal cord

A

Sensory Neurons

62
Q

work in spinal cord and brain and INTERVENE between sensory and motor neurons

A

Interneurons

63
Q

sends instructions OUTWARD from the brain and spinal cord

A

motor neurons