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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (24):

What are 5 changes in cognition during puberty?

1. Think about possibilities
2. Think about abstract concepts
3. Think about thinking (metacognition)
4. Think in multiple dimensions
5. See knowledge as relative (relativism)


What happens when teens start thinking about possibilities?

There is a development of deductive reasoning - "if-then" thinking. This is a major intellectual accomplishment. Example: ways in which their lives may be affected by different career choices. They can move easily between specific and abstract to generate alternative possibilities.


What are improvements in social cognition relates to?

Improvements in social cognition during adolescence is directly related to improvements in the ability to think abstractly. They have the ability to comprehend higher-order abstract logic: puns, proverbs, metaphors, and analogies


What is introspection?

There is increase introspection - thinking about our own emotions


What is self-consciousness?

Increased self-consciousness- thinking that others are thinking about us


What are some metacognitive consequences?

Adolescent egocentrism:
1. Imaginary audience - believing that everyone is watching. Behaviour is the focus of others concern
2. Personal fable - experiences are unique. Nothing bad can happen to them because they are special


What does thinking in multiple dimensions mean?

Viewing things from more than one aspect, more sophisticated understanding of probability. Can understand sarcasm. Understand double- entendres


What does adolescent relativism mean?

The ability to see things as relative rather than absolute. Skepticism becomes common. Everything may seem uncertain. No knowledge seems completely reliable


The information - processing view. What are five areas of improvement?

1. Selective attention and divided attention
2. Working and long-term memory, autobiographical memories
3. Processing speed
4. Organization
5. Metacognition


What are three main characteristics of the information- processing approach

1. Thinking: highly flexible, adaptations and adjustments; task -oriented; goal-directed
2. Change mechanisms: encoding, automaticity; strategy construction
3. Self-modulation: using the above two characteristics to actively regulate the self and redefine thinking processes


What happens to the grey matter and white matter during adolescence?

Decrease in grey matter and an increase in white matter


Which part of the brain is pruned in adolescence?

The prefrontal cortex the region responsible for sophisticated thinking abilities such as planning, thinking weighing risks and rewards and controlling impulses


What are two major changes that take place in the brain in adolescence?

1. The elimination of unnecessary synapses, a process called synaptic pruning especially in the prefrontal cortex
2. Increased myelination of the brain which permits more efficient connection within and between brain regions.


Three big changes in puberty:

1. Biology
2. Cognition
3. Social status


What does introspection mean?

Thinking about our own emotions


What is convergent thinking?

How two different things are alike


What is divergent thinking?

How two alike things are different


What system is developed at adolescence and what system is not developed?

Limbic system matures at puberty...prefrontal cortex is not fully developed


Prefrontal cortex has three parts.

1. Dorsolateral - planning ahead
2. Ventromedial - gut reactions, instincts
3. Orbitofrontal - risks vs. rewards


Changes in the brain is affected by two neurotransmitters.

1. Dopamine - role in experience of reward
2. Serotonin - role in experience of different moods


What are Sternberg's three aspects if intelligence?

1. Componential - academic problem solving
2. Creative
3. Contextual - our ability to think practically


What is social cognition?

It involves such cognitive activities as thinking about people, social relationships, and social institutions.


Studies in social cognition fall into 4 categories:

1. Theory of mind - the ability to understand that others have beliefs, intentions, and knowledge that may be different from yours
2. How individuals think about social relationships
3. Individuals conceptions of laws, civil liberties and rights
4. Individuals understanding if social conventions


What is the behavioural decision theory?

Decision making on a cost/benefit analysis. Maximizing benefits. Teens don't put as much weight on the risks. The see the benefits and underestimate the risks of the behaviours