# Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

## Intro to Programming Logic and Design > Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (64)
0
Q

String

A

Data that consists of nonumeric characters.

1
Q

Numeric

A

Data that consists of numbers.

2
Q

Floating Point (Real Numbers)

A

Number with decimal places

3
Q

Numeric Constant (Literal Numeric constant)

A

A specific numeric value.

4
Q

String Constant (Literal String Constant)

A

Specific group of characters enclosed within quotation marks.

5
Q

Alphanumeric Values

A

values that contain alphabetic characters, numbers, and punctuation.

6
Q

Unnamed Constant

A

A literal numeric or string constant.

7
Q

Declaration

A

Statement that provides a data type and an identifier for a variable.

8
Q

Identifier

A

The program component’s name.

9
Q

Data Type

A

A classification that describes what values can be assigned, how the item is stored, and what types of operations can be performed with the item.

10
Q

Initializing a Variable

A

The act of assigning its first value, often at the same time the variable is created.

11
Q

Garbage

A

The unknown value stored in an unassigned variable.

12
Q

Keywords

A

The limited word set that is reserved in a language.

13
Q

Camel Casing

A

A variable-naming convention in which the initial letter in lowercase, multiple-word variable names are run together, and each new word within the variable begins with an uppercase letter.

14
Q

Pascal Casing

A

A variable-naming convention in which the initial letter is uppercase, multiple-word variable names run together, and each new word within the variable begins with an uppercase letter.

15
Q

Hungarian Notation

A

A variable-naming convention in which a variable’s data type or other information is stored as part of its name.

16
Q

Assignment Statement

A

Assigns a value from the right of an assignment operator to the variable or constant on the left of the assignment operator.

17
Q

Assignment Operator

A

The equal sign; it is used to assign a value to the variable or constant to the left.

18
Q

Binary Operator

A

An operator that requires two operands-one on each side.

19
Q

Right-Associativity (Right-to-Left Associativity)

A

Describes operators that evaluate the expression to the right first.

20
Q

lvalue (left value)

A

The memory address identifier to the left of an assignment operator.

21
Q

Numeric Variable

A

A variable that can hold digits, have mathematical operations performed on it, and usually can hold a decimal point and a sign indicating positive or negative.

22
Q

String Variable

A

A variable that can hold text that includes letters, digits, and special characters such as punctuation marks.

23
Q

Type-Safety

A

The feature of programming languages that prevents assigning values of an incorrect data type.

24
Q

Named Constant

A

Similar to a variable, except that its value cannot change after that first assignment.

25
Q

Magic Number

A

An unnamed constant whose purpose is not immediately apparent.

26
Q

A

The Extra resources a task requires.

27
Q

Rules of Precedence (Order of Operations)

A

Dictates the order in which operations in the same statement are carried out.

28
Q

What are the Rules of precedence?Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication,

A

What are the Rules of precedence?

29
Q

Left-to-Right Associativity

A

Operators that evaluate the expression to the left first.

30
Q

Modules

A

Small program units that you can use together to make a program.

31
Q

Subroutines, Procedures, Functions, and Methods.

A

What are the other names for Modules?

32
Q

To call a Module

A

The use of module’s name to invoke it, causing it to execute.

33
Q

Modularization

A

The process of breaking down a program into modules.

34
Q

Functional Decomposition

A

The act of reducing a large into more manageable modules.

35
Q

Abstraction

A

The process of paying attention to important properties while ignoring nonessential details.

36
Q

Reusability

A

The feature of modular programs that allows individual modules to be used in a variety of applications.

37
Q

Reliability

A

Is the feature of modular programs that assures you a module has been tested and proven to function correctly.

38
Q

Main Program

A

Runs from start to stop and calls other modules.

39
Q

Mainline Logic

A

The logic that appears in a program’s main module, it calls other modules.

40
Q

A

Includes the module identifier and possibly other necessary identifying information.

41
Q

Module Body

A

All the statements on the Module.

42
Q

Module Return Statement

A

This marks the end of the module and identifies the point at which control returns to the program or module that called the module.

43
Q

Encapsulation

A

The act of containing a task’s instructions in a module.

44
Q

Stack

A

A memory location in which the computer keeps track of the correct memory address to which it should return after executing a module.

45
Q

Functional Cohesion

A

Measure of degree to which all the module statements contribute to the same task.

46
Q

Visible

A

Describes the state of data items when a module can recognize them.

47
Q

In Scope

A

Describes the state of data that is visible.

48
Q

Local

A

Describes variables that are declared within the module that uses them.

49
Q

Global

A

Describes variables that are known to the entire program.

50
Q

Portable

A

Module is one that can more easily be reused in multiple programs.

51
Q

A

The steps you must perform at the beginning of a program to get ready for the rest of the program.

52
Q

A

The steps that are repeated for each set of input data.

53
Q

A

The steps you take at the end of the program to finish the application.

54
Q

Hierarchy Chart

A

A diagram that illustrates modules’ relationships to each other.

55
Q

A

Written explanations that are not part of the program logic but that serve as documentation for those reading program.

56
Q

Internal Documentation

A

Documentation within a coded program.

57
Q

External Documentation

A

Documentation outside a coded program

58
Q

Annotation Symbol

A

Contains information that expands on what appears in another flowchart symbol; it is most often represented by a three-sided box that is connected to the step it references by a dashed line.

59
Q

Self-Documenting

A

Programs that contain meaningful data and module names that describe the programs’ purpose.

60
Q

Data Dictionary

A

A list of every variable name used in a program, along with its type, size, and description.

61
Q

Temporary Variable (Work Variable)

A

A work variable that you use to hold intermediate results during a program’s execution.

62
Q

Prompt

A

A message that is displayed on a monitor to ask the user for a response and perhaps explain how that response should be formatted.

63
Q

Echoing Input

A

The act of repeating input back to a user either in a subsequent prompt or in output.