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Cognitive neuroscience

The scientific field concerned with studying the neural basis of cognition

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Why study cognitive neuroscience

To understand the mind got mud do behavioral and physiological experiments

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Levels of analysis

A topic can be understood by studying it at s number of different levels of a system

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Neurons

Cells that are building blocks and transmission lines of the nervous system. Cell that is specialized to receive and transmit information in the Nervous system

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Nerve net

A network of continuously interconnected nerve fibers (as contrasted with neural networks, in which fibers are connected by synapses)

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What did Camilo Golgi do

Created a staining technique with silver nitrate with less than 1% stained

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What did Ramon cajal do with the staining technique

He used new born brains of animals that had less developed neural networks

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Neuron doctrine

The idea that individual cells called neurons transmit signals in the nervous system and that these cells are not continuous with other cells as proposed by nerve net theory

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Cell body

Part of a cell that contains mechanisms that keep the cell alive

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Dendrites

Structures that branch out from the cell body to receive electrical signals from other neurons

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Axon

Part of the neuron that transmits signals from the cell body to the synapse at the end of the axon

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Synapse

Small gap between the end of a neurons axon and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron

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Neuron circuits

Group of interconnected neurons or structures that are connected together. Forms connections only to specific neurons

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Receptors

Specialized neural structures that respond to environmental stimuli such as light mechanical stimulation or chemical stimulation.

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What did Edgar Adrian do

Recorded the first electrical signal from a single sensory neuron using microelectrodes

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Microelectrodes

Small wires that are used to record electrical signals from single neurons.

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What do micro electrodes do

Are small shafts of hollow glass filled with a conductive salt solution that can pick up electrical signals at the electrode tip and conduct these signals back to the recording device

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Recording electrode

When used to study neural functioning s very thin glass or metal prove that can pick up electrical signals from single neurons

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Reference electrode

Used with a recording electrode to measure the difference in change between the two

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Resting potential

Difference in charge between the inside and outside of a nerve fiber when the fiber is at rest (no other electrical signals are present)

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Nerve impulse

An electrical response that is propagated down the length of an axon (nerve fiber) also Called action potential

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Action potential

Propagated electrical potential responsible for transmitting neural information and for communication between neurons travel down the neurons axon

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Neurotransmitter

Chemical that is released at the synapse in response to incoming action potentials. Allows signal to be sent over the gap to the dendrite

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How do you tell if there's more pressure or less ?

action potentials increase with more pressure

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How do you tell if it's brighter

Rate of nerve firing increases

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Principle of neural representation

Everything a person experiences is based not on direct contact with stimuli, but on representations in the persons nervous system

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Retina

Layer of neurons that line the back of the eye

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Visual cortex

Area in the occipital lobe thst receives signals from the eyes

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How does seeing an image work

The image reflected is a representation the retina changes it into electrical signals and leaves the back of the eye through the optic nerve and reach the visual cortex.

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Feature detectors

Neurons that respond to specific visual features such as orientation, size, or more complete features that make up environmental stimuli

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What did David Hubel and thorsten do?

Presented visual stimuli to cats and found each neuron in the visual area of the cortex responded to a specific type of stimulation that caused neurons in and near the visual cortex to fire (feature detectors since they respond to specific stimulus features such as orientation, movement and length )

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Hierarchical processing

Processing that occurs in a persons resources and leaves little capacity to handle other tasks

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Sensory coding

How neural firing represents various characteristics of the environment.

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What is a problem of neural representation called

Problem of sensory coding

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Specifity coding

representation of a specific stimulus by the firing of neurons that respond only to that stimulus (ex: neurons for a specific face)

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Population coding

Neural representation of a stimulus by the pattern of firing of s large number of neurons

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Sparse coding

Neural coding based on the pattern of activity in small groups of neurons while majority stays silent

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Specifity theory

We have a specific neuron that matches to a specific face

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Distributed theory

Group of neurons that work together to do recognition in the brain

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Localization of function

Specific functions in specific areas of the brain

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Cerebral cortex

3mm thick outer later of the Brain that contain mechanisms responsible for higher mental functions like perception, language thinking and problem solving

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Neuropsychology

Study of behavior of people with brain damage

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Brock's area

In the frontal lobe associated with language production. Damage can cause brocas aphasia with ungrammatical speech and difficulty understanding sentences

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Wernickes area

In temporal lobe associated with understanding language- incoherent speech but fluent grammatically correct. Trouble comprehending language

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Occipital lobe

Back of brain that is devoted to analyzing incoming visual information

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What happens if you have a damaged occipital lobe?

Blindness

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Temporal lobe

Side of brain responsible for language, memory, hearing, and vision.

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What does the stoma sensory cortex do

receives signals from the skin in the parietal lobe

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Parietal lobe

Top of the brain that contains mechanisms responsible for sensations caused by stimulation of the skin and some visual

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Frontal lobe

Receives signals from all of the senses and is responsible for coordination of the senses and thinking and problem solving

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Prosopagnosia

Damage to the temporal lobe causing inability to recognize faces

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Double dissociation

A single dissociation can be demonstrated in one person and the opposite type of single dissociation in another

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Brain imaging

Technique such as functional magnetic resonance imaging that results in images of the brain that represent brain activity. The activity is measured in response to specific tasks

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Brain imaging technique that creates images of structures with in the brain.

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What are MRI's used for

Detecting tumors and other brain abnormalities. Does not indicate neural activity

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Brain imaging technique that measures how blood flow changed in response to cognitive activity

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Fusiform face area (FFA)

Areas in temporally lobe that contains many neurons that respond selectively to faces

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Paraphippocsmpal Place Area (PPA)

In temporal lobe that contains neurons that are selectively activated by pictures of indoor and outdoor scenes.

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Extrastrate body area (EBA)

Area in temporal cortex that is activated by pictures of body parts and bodies but not faces or objects

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Distribution representation

Occurs when a specific cognition activates many areas of the brain

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Neural networks

Groups of neurons or structures that are connected together

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Pain matrix

Number of connected structures that are involved in perception of pain.

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Diffusion tension imaging

Technique based on detection of hle water diffuses along the length of nerve fibers for trading nerve large and determining connection

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Phrenology

Feeling or making a persons skull for bumps or divots.

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What was the claim for bumps on the skull

More space = more brain matter.

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What does a ct scan do?

Allow you to see pictures of body like an x Ray. Allows to see a tumor in someone's brain

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What to PET scans and fMRI show

Measure blood flow since blood goes to activate parts of the brain during a specific task.