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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (56)
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1

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt

Early childhood

Develop Autonomy

2

Initiative vs Guilt

Play age

Develop initiative

3

Industry vs Inferiority

School age

Deve develop feelings of competence

4

Identity versus identity diffusion

Adolescent developmental stage

Integrate early Self with changing self

5

Intimacy versus isolation

Developmental stage early adulthood

Establish intimacy

6

Generativity versus self absorbency

Adulthood

Establishing guide the next generation

7

Integrity versus despair

Senescence

Reach end of life with positive self esteem

8

Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development

Trust vs Mistrust

Developmental Stage: Infancy
Develop a basic sense of trust

9

experience-expectant

the neural connections that develop under genetic influence, independent or experience, activity, or stimulation

10

experience-dependent

the neural connections that develop in response to experience

11

self-concept

an individual's perception of his/her identity as distinct from others

12

the value one places on their identity

self esteem

13

generativity

interest in establishing an guiding the next generation

14

self-regulation

the ability to control one's impulses, behavior, and/or emotions until an appropriate time, place, or object is available for expression

15

developmental tasks

a task that lies between an individual's need and a societal demand

16

ego centrism

the cognitive inability to look at the world from any point of view other than one's own

17

community

a group of people sharing fellowship an common interests; a group of people living in the same geographic area who are bound together politically and economically

18

social capital

term referring to individual and communal time and energy (human resources) available for such things as social networking, personal recreation, community improvement, civic engagement, and other activities that create social bonds between individuals and groups

19

advocacy

speaking or writing in support of a person, a group, or a cause

20

affective

having to do with feelings and emotions

21

attachment

an affectional tie that one person forms to another person, binding them together in space and enduring over time

22

operant

producing an effect

23

reinforcement

an object or event that is presented following a behavior and that serves to increase the likelihood that the behavior will occur again

24

positive reinforcement

a reward, or pleasant consequence, given for desired behavior

25

negative reinforcement

the termination of an unpleasant condition following a desired response

26

extinction

the gradual disappearance of a learned behavior following the removal of the reinforcement

27

punishment

physically or psychologically painful stimuli or the temporary withdrawal of pleasant stimuli when undesirable behavior occurs

28

feedback

evaluative information, both positive and negative, about one's behavior

29

self-efficacy

the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes

30

modeling

a form of imitative learning that occurs by observing another person (the model) perform a behavior and experience its consequences

31

standard

a level or grade of excellence regarded as a goal or a measure of adequacy

32

reasoning

giving explanations or causes for an act

33

altruism

actions that are intended to help or benefit another person or group of people without the actor's anticipation of external rewards

34

sociocentrism

the ability to understand and relate to the views and perspectives of others

35

transductive reasoning

reasoning from one particular fact or case to another similar fact or case

36

inductive reasoning

reasoning from particular facts or individual cases to a general conclusion

37

deductive reasoning

reasoning from a general principle to a specific case, or from a premise to a logical conclusion

38

authoritative

parenting a style of democratic parenting in which authority is based on competence or expertise

39

permissive

parenting a style of child-centered parenting characterized by a lack of directives or authority

40

authoritarian

parenting a style of parent-centered parenting characterized by unquestioning obedience to authority figure.

41

tradition

customs, stories, and beliefs handed down from generation to generation

42

ritual

a ceremonial observation a prescribed rule or custom

43

rites of passage

rituals that signify changes in individuals' status as they move through cycle life

44

routines

repetitive acts or established procedures

45

symbols

acts or objections that have come to be generally accepted as standing for something else

46

apprenticeship

a process in which a novice is guided by an expert to participate in the master taskes

47

values

qualities or beliefs that are viewed as desirable or important

48

attitudes

tendencies to respond positively (favorably) or negatively (unfavorably) to certain person/ objects, or situations

49

motives

needs or emotions that cause a person to act

50

motives

needs or emotions that cause person to act

51

attributions

explanations for one's performance

52

mastery motivation

the inborn motive to explore, understand, and control one's environment

53

achievement motivation

the inborn motivation to achieve mastery of challenging tasks

54

behavior

what one does or how one acts in response to stimulus

55

morals

and individuals evaluation of what is right and wrong

56

gender roles

the qualities that an individual understands to characterize males and females in his or her culture.