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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (66):
1

producers

of an ecosystem provide food for the other organisms present
producers include plants, and other photosynthetic organisms
take co2 and change to sugar

2

consumers

within an ecosystem eat plants and other animals
require organic material as meal

3

decomposers

breakdown wastes and dead organisms recycling nutrients so that they can be used for biosynthesis
ex) fungi, bacteria, small animals present in soil
break down dead, organic material

4

organims within an ecosystem interact with

both the living and the non-living components of their environment

5

there are two ways in which ecosystems can be characterized

1. recyling of chemical nutrients: the basic chemicals needed for life, (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen) flow from air an soil to plants, animals, and decomposers and the back to the air and soil
2. energy flow: energy is constantly gained and lost from an ecosystem
energy enters an ecosystem when light from the sun is absorbed by plants and other photosynthetic organisms
energy exits an ecosystem as heat

6

cells

cells are both structural and functional units of life
the cell is the basic unit of life and is therefore the lowest structural level capable of preforming all activities necessary for life
the structure and function of a cell wall are well correlated to one another: an emergent property

7

cellular functions include

- responding to enviornmental changes
-the ability to take in and use energy
- regulating their own internal enviornment
-ability to produce and maintain its complex organization
- the ability to give rise to new cells
: the basis of reproduction, growth, and repair of multicellular organisms

8

two main cell types

1. prokarote
2. eukarotye

9

prokaryote cells

-unicelllar
-smaller than eurkaryotic cells
-less complex than eukaryotes
-non membrane bound nucleus
-no memebrane bound organelles
ex) bacteria
10 min to split

10

eukarote cells

-unicellular or multi cellular
-larger than prokaryotic cells
-more complex than prokarotes
-membrane bound nucleus
-membrane bound organelles
ex) animal cell
10 hours to split

11

all organisms share some common features which include

genetic material present as DNA
cells as the simplest unit of the organism

12

DNA is organized into functional units called ___?and the DNA itself is made of individual units called ___?

genes and nucleotides
ther are four nucelotides that make up DNA
adenine A
thymine T
cytosine C
guanine G

13

other features common among all life forms include

complex organization: highly ordered structure
a highly regulated internal environment: constant internal environment despite constantly changing external environments
the ability to grow and develop: genes which are inherited control growth and development
the ability to take in and utilize energy: the energy is used to preform all the necessary life functions
the ability to respond to enviornmental changes and stimuli
the ability to reproduce ones own kind
evolution of adaptation: this occurs over many generations, individual with traits best suited to their enviornment will pass them on to their offspring

14

there are how many species that are known and named

1.8 million
estimates of the true number of species range from 10 million to 400 million

15

taxonomy

is the branch of biology that names and classifies these species into groups based on similarity

16

all life can be organized into three domains

1) domain bacteria (prokaryotes)
2) domain archaea ( prokaryotes)
3) domain eukarya

17

kingdoms of the domain eukarya

there are four kingdoms within the domain eukarya:
1) kingdom protista: single celled protozoans and algae (singler and multi cellular)
2) kingdom plantae: photosynthesis plants
3) kingdoms fungi: molds, yeasts, and mushrooms
4) kingdom animalia: animals: vertebrates and invertabrates

18

charles darwin

-species present today arose from ancestral species
-he was able to explain both the unity of life (decent from a common ancestor) and the diversity of life (modifications as species diverged from common ancestor)
- darwin proposed that the mechanism of evolution was natural selection
- based on the observations of unequal reproduction success
-the environment selects fro certain traits
- this results in the accumulation of favorable traits in a population over time

19

natural selection

individuals within a population have varied traits which are inheritable
not all offspring will survive and only those that do will be given the chance to reproduce
the individuals with the most desirable traits will be able to survive and reproduce and the resulting population will therefore be enriched with organisms that have these traits

20

evolutionary adaptation

all organisms have specific adaptations that have evolved as a direct result of natural selection
antimicrobial resistance has also developed as a result of natural selection
-a resistant species devlelop in a short time period

21

adaptations

inherited traits that function to enhance an organisms ability to survive in a specific environment

22

pre-darwin evolutionary theories

greek philosophers initially beilieved that life likely changed gradually
aristotle view was that species were perfect and permanent
during this time it was also believed that earth was only 6,000 years old and that species were static in their form
during the mid 1700's fossils were studied revealing that there were previous life forms that differed from those seen today
jean baptise lamarck hypothesized in the early 1800's that life forms evolve
his theory was that this evolution took place according to use and non-use of various body parts which is erroneous
lamarks theory explained the long neck of the giraffe was the result of persistent stretching in order for the giraffe to reach higher trees

23

all about charles darwin

during the mid- 1800's darwin set sial around the world as captain of the HMA beagle
he collected plants, animals, and fossils from the shores of south america
-he noted adaptations of organisms from very different environment such as the Brazilian jungle and the Argentinian grassland
-he noted that the individual islands of the galapagos island has species that were different than those of other islands
he also discovered that these islands has species similar to but different than those species found on the nearby mainland
-these observations led him to doubt the pre-exsisting theory that earth and all of its organisms has been created only a few thousand years earlier
-darwin documented his orservations but delayed publishing his theory of evolution because he knew that it would not be widely accepted
in the mid 1850's alfrwed wallce put forth a similar theory of evolution as darwins
darwin published a book highlighting his theory in 1858 called "on the origin of species by means of natural selection
-evidence that present say species arose from ancestors
-as the descendants of a remote ancestor moved into various different environments they developed diverse adaptions that made them equipped to survive
-he proposed that the mechanisms of this evolution is natural selection

24

artifical selection

the modification of species by selecting and breeding those individual that possess desired traits

25

natural selection

a similar process to artificial selection but occurring in nature
this theory was based on two key observations
1. members of a population vary in their traits and most traits are inherited from parents to offspring
2. all species are capable of producing more offspring than the enviornment can support
he then infered that:
1. indivduals whose inherited traits provide them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing ina given environement tend to leave more offspring behind than other indivduals
2. this unequal production of offspring will cause favourbale traits to acumlate in an environment

26

natural selection

pesticise resistance as an example of natural selection
- bugs with the red gene are resistant to pesticides
-bugs with the green gene are susceptible to pesticides
-application of the pesticide leads to a population enriched with resistant buys
-future applications of the pesticide will be less effective

27

more charles

darwin suggested that if artificial selection can bring about so much change over such a small time period then natural selection has the capacity to considerably modify species over thousands of generations
-therefore many traits that allow an organism to adapt to a particular environment will accumulate over time
-if the environment changes or the organism moves tp a new environment than natural selection will select for new adaptions that make the organism more equipped to survive

28

fossils provide

comparrisons between past organisms and present organisms
the study of fossils provide strong evidence for evolution
fossils are usually only replicas of an organism
when the organism decays it forms a mold which is then filled with minerals dissolved in water

29

different types of fossils

1. the fossilized skull of homo erectus
2. cast fossils
3. trace fossils
4. fossilized organic matter
5. an insect buried in a tree resin 35 million years ago
6. ice also preserves whole organism

30

the fossilized skull of homo erectus

hard parts of the organism containing minerals such as bone may remain as fossils, while the other substances of the dead organisms usually decay rapidly

31

cast fossils

replicas of the organism formed when the organism decays and water and dissolved minerals fill its place
ex) ammonite casts (shelled organisms) 375 million years old

32

trace fossils

there are footprints, burrows, and others behavioural remnants
150 million year old dinosaur track in colorado

33

fossilized organic matter

ex) 40 million year old leaf

34

an insect buried in a tree resin 35 million years

the resin hardened into amber preserving the insect by protecting it form decomposition by bacteria and fungi

35

ice also preserves whole organisms

discovered in 1991, ice man was dead in the ice for 5000 years

36

the fossil record

this is the sequence in which fossils appear in the layers of sedimentary rock
deposits pile up over millions of years wirth the older sediments becoming buried below into rock
strata or layers are formed within the rock with younger strata atop older strata
the realitive age of a fossil can be determined by the layer in which it was found
the oldest known fossils date back 3.5 billion years and all are those of prokaryokes
-single celled eukaryotes arose 1.0 billion years later
-another 1.0 billion years passed before mutli-celled eukatotes were formed
fossils trace the evolution of whales into four-legged land mammals

37

other evidence for evolution

biogeography
comparative anatomy
compartive embryology
molecular biology

38

biogeography

-the geographical distrubition of species also suggests that organisms evolve from a common ancestor
-the island forms of certain species found on the mainland than those found on nearby island
-darwin noted that animals on the galapogoes islands are more closely resembled animals on the south american mainland than animals on similar but distant islands

39

comparative anatomy

comparing body structures in different species reveals homology suggesting a common ancestor

40

homology

the similarity in characteristics that result from a common ancestor

41

homologous structure

structure that are functionally different but have similar structures because of a common ancestor
ex) human, cat, whale, bat -arm, leg, fin, wing

42

analogous structure

structure that are functionally the same but a different evolutionary origin
ex) bats, blue birds, butterflys - wings

43

comparative embryology

organisms go through similar embryonic stages
comparison of the structures that appear during the development of different organisms suggest common ancestry
ex) many vertebrae species share common embryonic structures

44

molecular biology

individuals that arose from a common ancestor have greater similarity in their DNA and protein than do unrelated individuals
species that are closely related to one another have much higher percentage of identical amino acid sequences
a comparison of amino acid sequences serves as a evaluation of the relatedness of the two species

45

evolutionary trees

each branch point represents the common ancestor of the lineages beginning there or to the right of it
a hatch mark represents a homolgous characteristic shared by all groups to the right of the mark
homologus structures both anatomical and molecular can be used to determine the branching sequence of the tree

46

population

a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time

47

population genetics

the study of how populations change genetically over time
scientists that study evolution as the population level focus on the gene pool which is the total collection of genes in a population at any given time
-for most genes there are at least two alleles in the gene pool
-ex) an allele for a bug that is resistant to pesticides and an allele for a bug that is not resistant to pesticides
-when the pesticides are applied the allele frequency of the resistant gene will increase and the allele frequency of the susceptible gene will decrease

48

microevolution

microevolution is the gradual change in the gene pool of a population over time
-when allele frequencies are changing in a population over a number of generations evolution occurs on its smallest scale
ex) hair color lighter everyday just by slightest shade
-eventually blonde
-day to day unnoticeable, over time big change

49

generation of genetic variation

new alleles can be created by mutation
mutation is a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
sexual recombination: this generates variation by shuffling alleles during meiosis

50

factors that contribute to evolution

1. natural selection
2. genetic drift
3. gene flow

51

natural selection

this leads to differential reproductive success in a population
this can alter frequencies in a population

52

genetic drift

this is a change in the gene pool of a population due to chance
natural disaster, mass extinction, colonization of new areas
can alter allele frequencies in a population
can cause the bottle neck effect or the founder effect

53

gene flow

the movement (immigration or emigration) of individuals between populations
this can alter frequencies in a population
gain or loss of alleles

54

bottle neck effect

floods, fires and earthquakes can kill large numbers of people leaving behind a small surviving population that is unlikely to have the same genetic makeup as the original population

55

founder effect

the founder effect results when a few individuals colonize a new environment such as an isolated island
the smaller this new group is the less likely the genetic makeup of the new population will resemble that of the larger population that they left
the founder effect refers to the differences between the gene pool of the new population and the gene pool of the original population

56

endangered species

often have reduced variation
-the bottle neck effect
-there is a loss of genetic variability due to over hunting and habitat loss
-a high level of inbreeding occurs because the population is so small
-this may reduce the capacity of endangered species to survive as humans continue to alter the environment
ex) decreasing cheetah population
decreasing genetic diversity
leads to increased inbreeding
a high amount of genetic uniformity

57

natural selection alters variation

1. stabilizing selection
2. directional selection
3. disruptive selection

58

stabilizing selection

this favors intermediate phenotypes
low black, high grey, low white

59

directional selection

this acts against individuals at one of the phenotypes extremes
low black, low grey, high white or
high black, low grey, low grey

60

disruptive selection

this favours individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range
high black, low grey, high white

61

sexual selection

sexual selection occurs when individuals with certain characteristics are more likely to obtain mates
- a form of natural selection
-leads to the evolution of secondary sex characteristics
-these characteristics may provide individuals with a mating advantage

62

four reasons that natural selection produces less than perfect organisms

1. selection can only act on existing variations
2. evolution is limited by historical constrains
3. adaptations are often comprises
4. chance, natural selection and the environment all interact

63

selection can only act on existing variations

natural selection favors only the fittest variations from those which are available
these may not be the ideal traits
new and advantagous alleles cannot arise on demandd
ex) basket ball tryouts of all short people, you cannot just get tall people

64

evolution is limited by historical constraints

evolution operates on the traits that an organism already has
it does not produce new structures
it modifies existing structures to adapt them to new situations
ex) movement of land animals to water

65

adaptations are often comprises

each organism must be able to do many different things
ex) ducks, must be able to swim and fly
this is necessity makes their webbed feet less than perfect for walking on land

66

chance, natural selection and the environment all interact

chance affects the genetic structure of a population to a large extent
not all alleles fixed by genetic drift in a gene pool of a small population are better suited to the environment than the alleles which are lost