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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (63):
1

Protons

+

2

Electrons

-

3

Electron Shell 1

2 electrons

4

Electron Shell 2

8 electrons and eight for the rest of the shells

5

Kinetic Energy

Energy of Movement

6

Potential Energy

Storing energy

7

Chemical energy

Bonds

8

Electrical

Nerve impulse

9

Mechanical

muscle filaments ->

10

Radiant

UV Lights -> Vitamin D

11

Molecule

2 or more atoms held together by a chemical bond
Example: H2

12

Compound

2 or more different kinds of atoms held together by a chemical bond
Example: CH4

13

Solutions

homogeneous
solutes tiny, do not settle out
Example: seawater, air, mineral water

14

Colloids

heterogenous
solutes larger, do not settle out
Example: CFS: cerebrospinal fluid

15

Suspensions

homogeneous
solutes very large, do settle out
Sand and water

16

Ionic

a chemical bond formed by transferring an of one or more electrons from one atom to another
EX: NaCl

17

Anion

electron acceptor (-)

18

Cation

electron donor (+)

19

Covalent Bond

Electrons are shared between atoms to fill their outer electron shell

20

Polar (Bear)

Determined by the molecular shape
Unequal electron pair sharing
Example: H2O

21

Nonpolar

Equal Sharing
Electrically balanced
EX: CO2

22

Hydrogen bond

Hydrogen atom is covalently linked to an electronegative atom
Example: Water molecules

23

Synthesis

Anabolic
Puts stuff together
EX: Amino Acid molecules binding to proteins

24

Decomposition

Catabolic
Falling apart
Glycogen - broken down bones into small glucose molecules

25

Redox

Cellular Respiration
Oxidized or Reduced

26

Oxidized (oil)

Loses electrons
Isocitrate loses hydrogen

27

Reduced (rig)

Electron Acceptor
NaOH gains hydrogen

28

Temperature

Speeds up to a certain point,

29

Concentration

More you have the higher the reaction

30

Particle Size

Small- Fast
Large- Slow
Reaction speed

31

Catalysts

enzymes speed up

32

High Heat Capacity

Absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before changing
EX: Lake Michigan and Cold Air

33

High Heat of Vaporization

Changes from a liquid to a gas
EX: sweat meeting cold air = steam

34

Polar Solvent Properties

Compounds and molecules dissociate in water

35

Reactivity

Bond formation and breakage
Example:
Hydrolysis reaction – bond break
Dehydration reaction – bond form

36

Hydrolysis reaction

bond break

37

Dehydration reaction

bond form

38

Cushioning

Protection from trauma
CSF protects brain

39

Salts

Ionic compound that dissociates in water
Example: NaCl
All ions are electrolytes (conduct electrical current)

40

Acids

Substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) – proton donors
1-6
more hydrogen ions = more acidic

41

Bases

Proton acceptors – take up H+
Examples – hydroxyl ions (OH-) bind to H+
8-14
more hydroxyl ions = more alkaline

42

Buffers

Changes in pH = BAD
Buffers – resist abrupt changes in pH of body fluids
Strong acids – completely dissociate in water and are irreversible; dramatically change pH
i.e.HCL
Weak acids – do not dissociate completely; do not affect pH
i.e. carbonic acid (H2CO3)

43

Monosaccharides

1 sugar
Glucose and fructose
Carbohydrate

44

Disaccharides

2 sugar
sucrose and lactose
Carbohydrate

45

Polysaccharides

Many sugars
glycogen
Carbohydrate

46

Triglycerides

Lipids
Glyceral -> 3 fatty acid backbone

47

Unsaturated fat

a double bond

48

Saturated Fat

no double bond
trans fat - solidified by adding H

49

Eicosanoids

Prostaglandins
Pro-inflammation
Blood clotting and Wound healing

50

Proteins

Long chains of amino acids connected by peptide bonds (polypeptide chain)

51

Amino Acids

20 types
Amine group (NH2) + organic acid group (COOH)
R group – determines type

52

Structural levels

Primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary
Determine function and specificity
Amino acids face outside or in (i.e. water-loving)

53

Fibrous

Insoluble proteins and stable
Collagen, keratin

54

Globular

Water-soluble
Antibodies, protein-based hormones
May exhibit Denaturation
pH or temperature
example: milk producing hormones

55

Chaperones

Escorts
Globular protein
Fxn: prevent incorrect folding, translocate across membranes, break down proteins, interaction with other cells

56

Enzymes

Enzymes
Structure - globular protein
Catalysts Purely a protein

57

Holoenzyme

apoenzyme (protein) + cofactor (vitamin or metal ion)

58

Coenzyme

vitamin (i.e. Cellular Respiration Coenzyme A)

59

Hydrolases

add H2O (hydrolysis rxn)

60

Oxidases

add oxygen

61

Nucleic Acids

Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus

62

Nucleotide

the structural unit of nucleic acids
Nitrogen-containing base: ATCGU
Complementary bases
Pentose sugar
Phosphate group

63

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

primary energy-transferring molecule
RNA nucleotide (ribose)
Hydrolysis of ATP provides energy for chemical work, transport work, and mechanical work