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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (18):
1

Rationalism

The view that reason & logical argument, but not experience, is most important for how we acquire knowledge.

2

Scientific Method

1. Identify the problem
2. Gather information
3. Generate hypothesis
4. Design & conduct experiments
5. Analyse data & form conclusions
6. Restart the process

3

Descriptive Methods

- Any means to describe a group (capture, record, report)
- Interested in identifying "what is" instead of "why" it is

4

Naturalistic Observation

- Observation of behaviour as it happens.
- Not attempt to manipulate or control environment.

5

Participant Observation

- A research method in which the researcher becomes part of the group under investigation.

6

David Rosenhan

- Skeptical of diagnostic abilities of clinicians
- Did a 3 year investigation

7

Case Studies

- An in-depth analysis of a unique circumstance of an individual.

8

Henry Molaison - H.M.

Man who couldn't record memories.

9

Surveys

- An efficient way to to quickly collect information & gather an understanding of the current state of people’s opinions or attitudes.

10

Alfred Kinsey

Sex studies.

11

Correlation

- Researchers conduct observations, case studies, & surveys with the purpose of identifying relationships that exist between two or more variables.
- Correlations are not causations.

12

Positive Correlation

- The variables change in the same direction.
- As one variable increases, the other also increases. Same if it decreases. (line, bottom left to top right)

13

Negative Correlation

- One variable increase leads to decrease of the other. (line, top left to bottom right)

14

Zero Correlation

- Indicates that there is no apparent relationship between the variables. (Vaccines and autism) (line, random dots)

15

Confounding Variable

- Other variables that may influence one or both variables that we are measuring, thereby influencing the correlation coefficient. (Ice cream & homicide)

16

Hypothesis

- A prediction about what will happen in research.
- The aim of conducting experimental research is to explain cause and effect relationships.
- Specific.
- Testable.
- Falsifiable.
- As simple as possible.
- Should be consistent with prior observations or an existing theory.

17

Cause and Effect Relationships

"If I do this, then this will happen"
^ we are making a prediction about the outcome of an event, this prediction is a hypothesis.

18

Operational Definition

- How a researcher decides to measure a variable.
E.g.violent video games make people more aggressive. what constitutes as aggressive behaviour? the experimenter will decide "operational definition"