Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (18):
The view that reason & logical argument, but not experience, is most important for how we acquire knowledge.
1. Identify the problem
2. Gather information
3. Generate hypothesis
4. Design & conduct experiments
5. Analyse data & form conclusions
6. Restart the process
- Any means to describe a group (capture, record, report)
- Interested in identifying "what is" instead of "why" it is
- Observation of behaviour as it happens.
- Not attempt to manipulate or control environment.
- A research method in which the researcher becomes part of the group under investigation.
- Skeptical of diagnostic abilities of clinicians
- Did a 3 year investigation
- An in-depth analysis of a unique circumstance of an individual.
Henry Molaison - H.M.
Man who couldn't record memories.
- An efficient way to to quickly collect information & gather an understanding of the current state of people’s opinions or attitudes.
- Researchers conduct observations, case studies, & surveys with the purpose of identifying relationships that exist between two or more variables.
- Correlations are not causations.
- The variables change in the same direction.
- As one variable increases, the other also increases. Same if it decreases. (line, bottom left to top right)
- One variable increase leads to decrease of the other. (line, top left to bottom right)
- Indicates that there is no apparent relationship between the variables. (Vaccines and autism) (line, random dots)
- Other variables that may influence one or both variables that we are measuring, thereby influencing the correlation coefficient. (Ice cream & homicide)
- A prediction about what will happen in research.
- The aim of conducting experimental research is to explain cause and effect relationships.
- As simple as possible.
- Should be consistent with prior observations or an existing theory.
Cause and Effect Relationships
"If I do this, then this will happen"
^ we are making a prediction about the outcome of an event, this prediction is a hypothesis.