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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (26)
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1

Long-Axis Plane

parallel to the long axis of the left ventricle, imaginary line through the LV apex (tip of LV) and center of LV base (valve annulus region), intersecting the center of the AV

2

Short-Axis Plane

perpendicular to the long axis view, resulting in circular cross sectional view of the LV

3

Four-Chamber Plane

perpendicular to short axis views, image plane from the apex to the base intersecting both ventricles and atria

4

Two-Chamber Plane

rotation from the four chamber provides an image plane that intersects the LV, MV, and LA

5

Four Acoustic Windows

1. Parasternal
2. Apical
3. Subcostal
4. Suprasternal Notch

6

Transducer Motions

1. Move: move the transducer to a different position
2. Tilt: tip the transducer with a rocking motion to image different structures in the same tomographic plane
3. Angle: angle the transducer in any direction to obtain a different tomographic plane
4. Rotate: rotate the image plane at a single position to obtain intersection tomographic planes

7

ASE

American Society Echocardiography

8

4 Things Prior to the Examination

1. relevant clinical data, prior imaging studies, indication for the study are reviewed
2. blood pressure, age, height, and weight are recorded
3. patient is positioned comfortably in Left Lateral Decubitus position (or supine)
4. Single lead EKG (usually lead II)

9

4 Things that affect Technical Quality

1. increased distance from heart (adipose)
2. decrease penetration (scar tissue)
3. interpose air (lung, chronic lung disease, recent cardiac surgery)
4. utilize patient positioning (structures towards chest wall) and respiration (suspend breathing where images improve)

10

Fractional Shortening

FS= (LVDD-LVSD)/LVDD X 100
Last available norm: >25%

11

Ejection Fraction

EF= (EDV-ESV)/EDV X 100
Men: > or equal to 52
Female: > or equal to 54

12

Proximal RVOT 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 3.5 cm
Female: < or equal to 3.5 cm

13

LA 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 4 cm or 2.3 cm/m2
Female: < or equal to 3.8 or 2.3 cm/m2

14

Aortic Annulus 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 3.2 cm or 1.5 cm/m2
Female: < or equal to 2.7 cm or 1.5 cm/m2

15

Sinus of Valsalva 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 4.0 cm or 2.1 cm/m2
Female: < or equal to 3.6 cm or 2.2 cm/m2

16

ST Junction 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 3.5 cm or 1.9 cm/m2
Female: < or equal to 3.1 cm or 1.9 cm/m2

17

Proximal Ascending Aorta 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 3.8 cm or 1.9 cm/m2
Female: < or equal to 3.5 cm or 2.2 cm/m2

18

Proximal RVOT 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 3.5 cm
Female: < or equal to 3.5 cm

19

Distal RVOT 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 2.7 cm
Female: < or equal to 2.7 cm

20

RA Major 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 5.3 cm or 3.0 cm/m2
Female: < or equal to 5.3 cm or 3.1 cm/m2

21

RA Minor 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 2.5 cm
Female: < or equal to 2.5 cm

22

RV Basal Diameter 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 4.1 cm
Female: < or equal to 4.1 cm

23

RV Mid Diameter 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 3.5 cm
Female: < or equal to 3.5 cm

24

RV Longitudinal Diameter 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 8.3 cm
Female: < or equal to 8.3 cm

25

RV Free Wall Thickness 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 0.5 cm
Female: < or equal to 0.5 cm

26

IVC 2D Linear Measurement ASE Norms

Male: < or equal to 2.1 cm
Female: < or equal to 2.1 cm