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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (20)
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1

Science

a systematic way to understand the material world and how it works

2

Fundamentalism

has a religious connotation that indicated unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs

3

Endemic

a characteristic or feature that is natural to a given population or environment

4

Systematics

study of biological relationships over time

5

Demography

the study of population with regard to birth, survival, and death

6

Uniformitarianism

theory that processes from the geological past are still at work today

7

Catastrophism

doctrine asserting that cataclysmic events are responsible for geologic changes throughout history

8

Lamarckism

evolutionary theory that suggests organisms can pass on characteristics acquired during its lifetime

9

Evolution

change in the frequency of a gene or trait over time

10

Adaptation

trait in a specific environment that provides a survival and reproductive advantage

11

Adaptive Radiation

diversification of ancestral species into new forms because they have adapted to a niche

12

Mutation

random and spontaneous changes in a gene

13

Gene Flow

exchange of genetic information through migration and reproduction

14

Genetic Drift

a random change in the frequency of alleles making 2 groups different (bottleneck and founder)

15

Natural Selection

selection for or against a trait to increase the chances of survival and reproduction in an environment

16

Non-random mating

struggle between males for a mate and by females to pick the best mate

17

Runaway selection

reinforcing the trait endlessly

18

Costly signalling

trait is selected for so much that it hinders survival

19

How do the forces of evolution act on variation?

Natural selection: decreases or increases within or between groups
Gene flow: decreases between, increases within
Genetic drift: increases between, decreases within
Mutation: increases within or between

20

What are the types of selection?

Balancing: selection for best trait
Directional: selection for one extreme
Disruptive: selection for both extremes (divides population)