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What are the positive consequences of a medium level of goal commitment for employees
and the organization?

• employees
- enhanced sense of belonging, efficacy, loyalty, and individualism
- organization
increased workforce stability
lower turnover
increased job satisfaction


What are the negative consequences of a low level of goal commitment for employees and
the organization?

• slower promotions
- slower career advancements
- backlashes from whistleblowing
- individual's exclusion from the organization organization
-high turnover
• absenteeism
- low-quality work


List at least two attitudes, different from earlier generations, that younger workers generally bring to their role as an employee

• a feeling of entitlement regarding basic necessities associated with a job, such as
retirement and health care
- less concern with job or financial security
- an attitude of work to live vs. work to save valuing
- leisure time


List at least three components of effective objectives.

- start with action
- identify the proposed result
- establish a date of completion
- ensure that the objective can be managed or controlled
- apply the SMART test
Managing the Organization


What does MBO mean?

• management by objective
a comprehensive planning, evaluation, development, and control system based on
quantifiable objectives, such as performance


What are the three classifications of organizational goal commitment?

• general organizational information
• created by board of directors and executive management

- focus on tasks and actions needed to achieve goals . - created by mid- to top-level management

• involve identification of performance expectations for a given work group
- implemented and managed by low- and mid-level managers


Identify at least four performance measures that represent controls established to achieve
organizational goals.

• time controls
deadlines and organizational constraints
- material controls .
inventories and expected yield
- equipment controls
built into operating equipment and focused on safeguarding investments
- cost controls
budgets and constraints
- budget controls : costs and expenses, materials used, products produced
- financial controls
expected returns, profit
- employee performance controls
performance management, reviews


What are the factors that contribute to the continuance of an organization's culture?

• various personnel decisions
- reactions to crises
- managers' focuses—what they measure and what they control available role models, coaches, and mentors
- incentives and reward systems


What are several ways that managers plan, organize, control, and direct resources related to
younger employees?

• thinking ahead and planning for potential challenges
- anticipating change assisting with goal setting, both personally and organizationally
-creating work teams -
- assisting workers' development of skills
- challenging and empowering employees
- respecting all members of the workforce
- encouraging open communications


What are some approaches that are unique to leaders as opposed to managers in
organizations as they relate to setting goals?

• leaders
- use goals as vehicles for change
- take more risks and tend to develop new solutions to existing problems relate more
to immediate situations, often evoking strong feelings or opinions
- Managers
- are less concerned about goals and adopt them based on necessity
- focus on strategies
- negotiate making decisions
- solve problems
- establish interpersonal relations for goal achievement


Which approaches might managers use to evaluate employee performance?

• collected performance data
- predetermined goals
- manager's experience and background
-organization's policies
-management philosophy and constraints
- employee orientation and expectations
- written data
- oral reports
- personal observation


Name three positive elements of individual goal achievement that ultimately have an
impact on organizational goals.

• job satisfaction
- Interrelated levels of commitment
--gaining employees' confidence and belief in the organization's goals and values
- individual performance


When recruiting and maintaining a younger and more diverse workforce, what strategies
hold promise?

• hiring a more diverse part-time workforce, including older and less traditional workers
• offering tuition grants to valuable employees
• paying a cash award for valuable personnel references from employees
- creating upward movement for valuable employees - providing transportation assistance where necessary
- recruiting directly from colleges and universities


What are the five elements of the SMART model for setting goals?

What is the objective?
• What standards must be met?
• Is the objective feasible?
• Is the objective relevant?
• Is the objective traceable?