Chapter 2 - Biological Foundations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Biological Foundations Deck (51)
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1

The changes in physiology, anatomy, and physical functioning that develop a person into a mature adult biologically and prepare the body for sexual reproduction

Puberty

2

A network of glands in the body. Through hormones, the glands coordinate the functioning and affect the development and functioning of the body

Endocrine system

3

Chemicals, released by the glands of the endocrine system, that affect the development and functioning of the body, including development during puberty

Hormones

4

The "master gland," located in the lower part of the brain beneath the cortex, that affects a wide range of physiological and psychological functioning and stimulates and regulates the production of hormones by other glands, including the ones involved in the initiation of puberty

Hypothalamus

5

Hormone released by the hypothalamus that causes gonadotropins to be released by the pituitary

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

6

A protein, produced by fat cells, that signals the hypothalamus to initiate the hormonal changes of puberty

Leptin

7

A gland about half an inch long located at the base of the brain that releases gonadotropins as part of the body's preparation for reproduction

Pituitary gland

8

Hormones, FSH and LH, that stimulate the development of gametes

Gonadotropins

9

Along with LH, stimulates the development of gametes and sex hormones in the ovaries and testicles

Follicle-stimulating hormone FSH

10

Along with FSH, stimulates the development of gametes and sex hormones in the ovaries and testicles

Luteinizing hormone LH

11

Cells, distinctive to each sex, that are involved in reproduction (egg cells in the ovaries of the female and sperm in the testes of the male)

Gametes

12

The ovaries and testicles. Also known as the sex glands

Gonads

13

Androgens and estrogens that cause the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics

Sex hormones

14

The sex hormones that have especially high levels in females from puberty onward and are mostly responsible for female primary and secondary sex characteristics

Estrogens

15

The sex hormones that have especially high levels in males from puberty onward and are mostly responsible for male primary and secondary sex characteristics

Androgens

16

The estrogen most important in pubertal development among girls

Estradiol

17

The androgen most important in pubertal development among boys

Testosterone

18

The hormone that causes the adrenal glands to increase androgen production

Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH

19

System of hormones involving the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the gonads, which monitors and adjust the levels of the sex hormones

Feedback loop

20

Optimal level of sex hormones in the body. When this point is reached, responses in the glands of the feedback loop cause the production of sex hormones to be reduced

Set point

21

The rapid increase in height of that takes place at the beginning of puberty

Adolescent growth spurt

22

The point at which the adolescent growth spurt is at its maximum rate

Peak height velocity

Girls typically reach the beginning of their growth spurt as well as their peak height velocity about two years earlier than boys. Girls also mature about two years ahead of boys

23

Uneven growth of different parts of the body during puberty

Asynchronicity

24

The feet, hands, and head

Extremities

25

The amount of air that can be exhaled after a deep breath, which increases rapidly during puberty, especially for boys

Vital capacity

26

A measure of the ability of the body to take in oxygen and transport it to various organs; peaks in the early 20s

Maximum oxygen uptake VO2 max

27

A measure of the quantity of blood pumped by the heart

Cardiac output

Peaks at age 25

28

Efforts to reduce health problems in young people through encouraging changes in the behaviours that put young people at risk

Health promotion

29

The production of eggs and sperm and the development of the sex organs

Primary sex characteristics

30

Bodily changes of puberty not directly related to reproduction

Secondary sex characteristics

Example: growing hair in the pubic areas and armpits, facial hair, hairiness on the arms and legs, sweat glands increase production making skin oilier and more prone to acne, stronger body odor, deepening of the voice