Chapter 2 - Bleeding Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Bleeding Disorders Deck (16)
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1

What is the MoA of antifibrinolytics?

Inhibit fibrinolysis to promote blood clotting

2

What are two examples of antifibrinolytics?

Tranexamic acid

Desmopressin

3

What is an example of a haemostatic?

Emicizumab, which is a biologic (should be prescribed by the brand name)

4

What are the indications and doses of tranexamic acid?

Menorrhagia
1g TDS, initiated once menstruation has started

Local fibrinolysis
1-1.5g BD-TDS (mouth)
0.5-1g BD-TDS (slow IV injection)

Prevention and treatment of significant haemorrhage following trauma
1g over 10min (IV)
Then 1g over 8 hours (IV)

5

What are the main cautions/contraindications of tranexamic acid?

Contraindication - history of seizures

Caution - use of oral contraceptives

6

What are the main side effects of tranexamic acid?

Diarrhoea (reduce dose)
Nausea
Vomiting
Colour vision changes (discontinue)
Seizures (discontinue)

7

Can tranexamic acid be used in pregnancy?

Avoid unless benefit outweighs risk

8

When is dried prothrombin complex indicated?

Treatment of haemorrhage in congenital deficiencies of coagulation factors

Major bleeding in patients on warfarin following phytomenadione

9

What are the side effects of dried prothrombin complex?

Embolism, thrombosis, haemorrhage

Hypertension

Hepatic disorders

10

What is subarachnoid haemorrhage?

A type of stroke where there is bleeding into the subarachnoid space

11

What are the symptoms of a subarachnoid haemorrhage?

Sudden, severe headache

Not precipitated by exercise or sexual activity

12

What is the treatment for a subarachnoid haemorrhage?

Nimodipine

13

What class of drug is nimodipine?

CCB (dihydropyridine)

14

What are the contraindications of nimodipine?

Unstable angina

MI in the past month

15

What are 8 side effects of CCBs

Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting
Dizziness, drowsiness, headache
Palpitations, tachycardia
Peripheral oedema, angiodema
Skin reactions
Myalgia
Erectile dysfunction
Gingival hyperplasia
Depression
Thrombocytopenia
Bradycardia

16

What are the symptoms of CCB overdose?

Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, agitation, confusion, coma