Chapter 2. Body as a Whole - Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2. Body as a Whole - Medical Terms Deck (77):
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abdomen

area of the body between the chest and the pelvis region

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abdominal cavity

area of the body between the chest and pelvis (hip region)

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adipose

pertaining to fat

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anabolism

process of building up or synthesizing substances (such as proteins) in a cell

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anterior

pertaining to the front of a structure

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cartilage

elastic, connective tissue found at joints, within the trachea and larynx, and connected to ribs, nose, and ear

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catabolism

cellular process of breaking down of a complex substance into simple compounds, energy is released to do the work of the cell

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caudal

pertaining to tail, or to the lower portion of the body; also means away from the head or below another structure

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cell membrane

thin and delicate structure surrounding a cell, allows materials to pass in and out

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cephalic

pertaining to the head, also means above another structure

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cervical

pertaining to the neck of the body or lower neck-line portion of the uterus

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chondroma

tumor (benign) of cartilage

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chrondrosarcoma

malignant, cancerous tumor of cartilage

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chromosome

threadlike structure within the nucleus of a cell, contains genetic material (DNA)

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coccygeal

pertaining to the tailbone or coccyx

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coccyx

tailbone at the end of the spinal or vertebral column

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cranial cavity

pertaining to the space within the skull containing the brain and pituitary gland

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craniotomy

incision of the skull

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cytoplasm

all of the substance of a cell other than the nucleus

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deep

away from the surface of the body or an organ

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diaphragm

muscular wall separating the chest and the abdomen

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disk (disc)

circular platelike structure composed of cartilage

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distal

pertaining to far from the beginning of a structure

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dorsal

pertaining to the back, or posterior portion of the body

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epigastric region

the upper middle region of the abdomen, between the right and left hypochondriac regions

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epithelial cells

cells arranged in layers and covering or lining a surface of the body

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frontal plane

a vertical plane passing through the body and dividing it into the front and back portions, coronal plane

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genes

segments of DNA that determine hereditary characteristics

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histology

study of tissues

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hypochondriac region

an upper abdominal area on either side of the epigastric (middle) region beneath the cartilage of the lower ribs

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hypogastric

lower middle region of the abdomen

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iliac

pertaining to the ilium, which is the right or left upper most portion of the hipbone

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inguinal region

lowermost region of the abdomen on either side of the hypogastric region

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intervertebral

pertaining to between the vertebrae (backbones)

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karyotype

classification of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell determined by a photograph taken during cell division

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larynx

the voice box

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lateral

pertaining to the sides

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lumbar region

one of two middle lateral regions on either side of the umbilical region (near the naval)

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lumbosacral

pertaining to the lumbar and sacral regions of the back

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medial

pertaining to the middle or midline of the body

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mediastinum

part of the thoracic (chest) cavity between the lungs

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metabolism

chemical processes that occur in cells; including catabolism (breaking down process) and anabolism (building up process)

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mitochondria

rod-like, threadlike or granular structures in a cell; site of catabolism and release of energy

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nucleic

pertaining to the nucleus

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nucleus

central, controlling structure in a cell; contains chromosomes with DNA (genetic material)

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pelvic cavity

pertaining to the space surrounded by the bone of the hip region

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peritoneum

membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen

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pharynx

the throat

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pituitary gland

endocrine gland at the base of the brain; secretes many hormones that control growth and organs including the thyroid, adrenal and sex glands

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pleura

a delicate membrane surrounding each lung and divided into two layers

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pleural cavity

space between the layers of the pleura in the chest

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posterior

pertaining to the back or dorsal side of the body or structure

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prone

lying in a horizontal position with face downward

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proximal

pertaining to a location near the point of attachment or beginning of an organ

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sacral

pertaining to the sacrum

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sacrum

large, triangular bone at the dorsal part of the pelvis, wedged between the two ilia or hipbones

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sagittal plane

vertical plane that divides the body into a right and left portion

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sarcoma

tumor of flesh tissue such as bone, fat, muscle or cartilage

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spinal cavity

series of backbones (vertebrae) located on the posterior side of the body

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spinal cord

the nervous tissue within the spinal cavity

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superficial

pertaining to or the surface of the body

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supine

lying horizontally on the back with face upward

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thoracic cavity

the space in the chest surrounded by the ribs, spinal column, breastbone, diaphragm, and chest wall muscles

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thoracotomy

incision of the chest

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thyroid gland

endocrine gland in the neck; secretes the hormone thyroxine

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trachea

windpipe; tube leading from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchial tubes

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tracheal

pertaining to the trachea

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transverse plane

horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions

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umbilical region

region in the area of the navel or umbilicus

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ureter

one of two tubes carrying urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

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uterus

muscular organ in a female that nourishes the developing embryo during pregnancy; womb

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ventral

pertaining to the front or anterior of the body

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vertebra

backbone

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vertebrae

two or more backbones

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vertebral

pertaining to backbones

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viscera

internal organs

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visceral

pertaining to internal organs