# Chapter 2- Concepts of Construction Flashcards

1
Q

NFPA 5000: Building Construction and Safety Code, _____ are forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movement, and restrained dimensional changes.

A

2
Q

The internal forces that resist the load are called

A

Stress and Strain.

3
Q

__, a term meaning 1,000 pounds, is used in engineering calculations where the number would be so large as to be unwieldy.

A

KIP

4
Q

Generally, four types of forces can be applied to a structural member: __, __, __, and __.

A

compression, tension, torsion, shear.

5
Q

Today, buildings can be considered as being bought

A

by the pound

6
Q

__ loads can be accurately calculated.

A

7
Q

__ loads are indeterminate. The __ load must be estimated based on the projected use of the building and such variables as snow, wind, or rain.

A

Live

8
Q

Water weighs __ pounds per gallon, so a 1,000 gallon per minute master stream will potentially add over 4 tons of weight to the building in just 1 minute.

A

8.34

9
Q

A

Static

10
Q

Two closely related structural frames, the __ __ and the __ __, are also used in buildings to resist lateral wind and earthquake loads (and, more recently, the lateral blast loads from a terrorist’s bomb). ____ ____ uses diagonal memebers for bracing purposes, while ____ _____ uses a special moment connects between columns and beams that resist rotation.

A

Braced frame, Moment frame

11
Q

Very tall high-rise buildings are built to take the wind load on the __ __ rather than on the __ __.

A

Exterior walls, interior core.

12
Q

A steel beam resting on a masonry wall is an example of a __ __ load.

A

13
Q

A safe is a __ __ load.

A

Concentrated live.

14
Q

Wood, paper and similar materials are estimated at __ btu/lb.

A

8000

15
Q

For plastics and combustible liquids, __ btu/lb is a common estimate, though the caloric value for some of these fuels is much higher.

A

16000

16
Q

Under this system, plastics were converted into equivalent pounds on the basis that __ pound of plastics equals __ pounds of wood.

A

1, 2.

17
Q

A fire load of 80,000 Btu/sq ft or 10 lbs of ordinary combustibles/sq ft is approximately the equivalent of a __ hour exposure to the standard fire endurance test ASTM E-119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials.

A

1

18
Q

Steel, which has a safety factor of __; masonry constructed in place might have a safety factor of __.

A

2, 10.

19
Q

Concrete is a relatively inexpensive material that is strong in __ but weak in __.

A

Compression, tension.

20
Q

The load carrying capacity of a beam increases by the __ of its depth.

A

Square

21
Q

__ can support axial loads but are not designed to handle rotational moments

A

Trusses

22
Q

Wooden __ chord trusses are being used for floors and roofs in single family homes, row houses, apartment houses, and smaller office buildings.

A

Parallel

23
Q

The top chord of a truss is in __.

A

Compression

24
Q

The bottom chord is in __.

A

Tension

25
Q

When a truss is __ out, the situation reverses.

A

Cantilevered

26
Q

It is more difficult to attach beams to __ columns than to rectangular columns, so less efficient rectangular columns are often used.

A

Round.

27
Q

In cast iron construction in buildings, interior columns are usually __, while wall columns (within exterior walls) are __.

A

Circular, Rectangular.

28
Q

There are three types of columns, which can be differentiated by the manner in which they generally fail. __ are short, squat columns, which fail by crushing.

A

Piers

29
Q

Long, __ columns fail by buckling. In buckling, the column normally assumes an S shape.

A

Slender

30
Q

__ columns can fail either way.

A

Intermediate

31
Q

Very long, thin columns are known as __ __ columns.

A

Euler’s Law

32
Q

The terms panel walls and curtain walls are often used interchangeably to describe non load bearing enclosing walls on framed buildings. Technically, __ walls are one story in height and __ walls are more than one story.

A

Panel, Curtain.

33
Q

The __ combines the function of the beam and the column.

A

Arch

34
Q

The truss is a beam, and its thrust is straight down the wall or column. In contrast, the thrust of an arch is __.

A

Outward

35
Q

When the arch is tied, the thrust is __, but it lacks the triangles that would make it a truss.

A

Downward

36
Q

The __ is a shell. It can be considered a three dimensional arch.

A

Dome

37
Q

__ domes are formed from a large number of triangles of equal size.

A

Geodesic

38
Q

There are two general types of connections:

A building is said to be __ when the elements are connected by simple connectors such as bolts, rivets, or welded joints. These are usually not strong enough to reroute forces if a member is removed, so do not assume loads will be redistributed around the missing member.

A

Pinned

39
Q

In a __ __ building, the connections are strong enough to reroute forces if a member is removed.

A

Rigid Framed

40
Q

A __ concrete building is rigid framed.

A

Monolithic

41
Q

__ concrete buildings may be pinned or may be made monolithic by the use of wet joints in which cast in place concrete unites rods that project from precast sections.

A

Precast

42
Q

Steel heated to 1,000 degrees F elongates __ inches per 100 feet.

A

9.5

43
Q

Unprotected steel rods and cables ( which fail at __ degrees F) are often used to tie failing buildings together or to provide some additional resistance to earthquake movement.

A

800

44
Q

Vertical or horizontal orientation.

A

Attitude

45
Q

A load that passes through the centroid of a section under construction and is perpendicular to the plane of the section.

A

46
Q

Lightweight steel truss joist.

A

Bar Joist

47
Q

A structural member that transmits forces perpendicular to such forces to the reaction points.

A

Beam

48
Q

A line of columns in any direction.

A

Bent

49
Q

A structural system that uses diagonal members to provide bracing against lateral wind and earthquake loads.

A

Braced Frame

50
Q

Diagonal member that supports what would otherwise be a cantilever.

A

Bracket

51
Q

Consists of an exterior wythe of brick directly mortared or parked to an inner wythe of concrete masonry unit.

A

Brick and Block Composite Wall

52
Q

The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree F at the pressure of 1 atmosphere and temperature of 60 degrees F.

A

British Thermal Unit, BTU.

53
Q

Made of steel plates and angles riveted together, as distinguished from one rolled from one piece of steel.

A

Built up Girder

54
Q

Mass of masonry built against a wall to strengthen it. Necessary when a vault or an arch places a heavy load or thrust on one part of a wall.

A

Buttress

55
Q

Measured in Btu; the amount of heat required to raise 1 pound of water 1 degree F.

A

Caloric value

56
Q

Upward rise.

A

Camber

57
Q

A beam supported at one end only, rigidly held in position at the end.

A

Cantilever beam

58
Q

A wall built of two wythes separated by a space for rain drainage or insulation.

A

Cavity or hollow wall

59
Q

The center point at which a body would be stable, or balance, under the influence of gravity.

A

Centroid

60
Q

The outside members (top and bottom) of a truss, as opposed to the inner webbed members

A

Chord

61
Q

A structural member that transmits a compressive force along a straight path in the direction of the member.

A

Column

62
Q

Built up of different parts, pieces, or materials.

A

Composite

63
Q

A wall composed of two or more masonry materials that react together under load.

A

Composite wall

64
Q

Direct pushing force, in line with the axis member; the opposite of tension.

A

Compression

65
Q

A load acting on a very small area of the structure’s surface; the exact opposite of a distributed load.

A

66
Q

A beam supported at three or more points.

A

Continuous beam

67
Q

Any wall at right angles to any other wall; the walls should brace one another.

A

Cross wall

68
Q

No external braces involved; bracing is done within the core of the structure.

A

Core construction

69
Q

The weight of the building itself and any equipment permanently attached to it or built in.

A

70
Q

The deformation or displacement of a structural member as a result of loads acting on it.

A

Deflection

71
Q

Wall bounding a tenant space.

A

Demising wall

72
Q

A floor designed to stiffen a building against wind and other lateral loads such as earthquakes.

A

Diaphragm floor

73
Q

A force that is perpendicular to the plane section but does not pass through the center of the section.

A

74
Q

The end of a joist that is cut at an angle to permit the joist to fall out of a wall without damaging the load bearing wall.

A

Fire cut

75
Q

The potential fuel available for a fire in a building.

A

76
Q

The ability of a material to avoid ignition, combustion, and the thermal effects of fire.

A

Fire resistance

77
Q

Wall with a fire resistive rating and structural stability that separates buildings or subdivides a building to prevent the spread of fire.

A

Fire wall

78
Q

Beam supported at two points and rigidly held in position at both points.

A

Fixed beam

79
Q

Made by sandwiching a piece of steel between two wooden beams.

A

Flitch plate girder

80
Q

The lower division of a building that serves to transmit and anchor the loads from the superstructure directly to its earth or rock, usually below ground level.

A

Foundation

81
Q

Another name for a gusset plate in a lightweight wood truss.

A

Gang nail

82
Q

A beam that supports other beams.

A

Girder

83
Q

A connection that depends on the weight of the building to hold it in place.

A

Gravity connection

84
Q

All of the structural elements of a building and the connections that support and transfer the loads.

A

Gravity resistance system

85
Q

A series of closely spaced beams designed to carry a particularly heavy load.

A

Grillage

86
Q

A masonry unit that overlaps two or more adjoining wythes of masonry to tie them together.

A

87
Q

The rate at which the potential heat in a fuel is released.

A

Heat release rate (HRR)

88
Q

When describing wall construction, a wall that acts as one unit.

A

Homogeneous

89
Q

The effect of a moving load upon a stationary structure.

A

90
Q

A truss incorporating a single compression member; it is inverted because the compression member extends downward.

A

Inverted king post truss

91
Q

A beam.

A

Joist

92
Q

A unit for measuring the energy release rate of fire.

A

Kilowatt (KW)

93
Q

A wall typically found in the top floor of a wood frame home with a peaked roof. This short wall squares off the triangular area at the edge of the room where the sloping roof meets the floor.

A

Knee wall

94
Q

A force that acts on a structure from a horizontal direction, such as wind or seismic forces.

A

95
Q

A wood board typically attached to a wall’s studs that is used to support wood joists.

A

Ledger board

96
Q

The horizontal beam that forms the upper structural member of an opening for a window or door and supports part of the structure above it.

A

Lintel

97
Q

The weight of the buildings contents.

A

98
Q

A very large structure.

A

Megastructure

99
Q

A structural system that utilizes special moment connections between columns and beams to resist rotation due to lateral loads such as earthquakes and wind.

A

Moment frame

100
Q

A construction technique in which all successive poured concrete castings are joined together so that the structure seems to be like one piece of stone.

A

Monolithic concrete

101
Q

When any change is to be made in the foundation of an existing wall, the wall must be supported. Often holes are cut through the wall, and so called __ __ are inserted and supported on both sides.

A

Needle beams

102
Q

The line along which the length of the beam does not change.

A

Neutral axis

103
Q

The connection points joining ties, struts, and chords in a truss.

A

Panel points

104
Q

Non load bearing enclosing wall on framed buildings.

A

Panel wall (curtain wall)

105
Q

A non load bearing wall that subdivides spaces within any story of a building or room.

A

Partition wall

106
Q

A load bearing wall that is common to two structures.

A

Party wall

107
Q

A masonry column projecting from one or both faces of the wall in which it is located.

A

Pilaster

108
Q

Design based on connections that redirect overloads to other sections of the building.

A

Plastic design

109
Q

Heavy riveting of girders to columns from the top to the bottom of the frame.

A

Portal bracing

110
Q

A truss with two compression member.

A

Queen post truss

111
Q

Diagonal bracing columns

A

Rakers

112
Q

The response in structures to the imposed loads, which are generally developed at the supports.

A

Reaction

113
Q

A load that is applied intermittently.

A

114
Q

A water soluble mixture used in the past as mortar, when water is applied, the mortar can be washed away from the wall.

A

Sand lime mortar

115
Q

A type of floor in which floor girders are set on anchor boxes in walls and caps attached to columns.

A

Self releasing floor

116
Q

A

Self weight

117
Q

A wall that counteracts the effects of lateral loads such as wind and earthquakes.

A

Shear wall

118
Q

Forces occurring within a building member when opposing forces pull the member in opposite directions.

A

Shear

119
Q

A beam supported at two points near its end.

A

Simple beam

120
Q

A three dimensional pyramid like truss

A

Spaceframe

121
Q

A girder that ties wall columns together in a framed building

A

Spandrel girder

122
Q

An open web design used for the support of floors and roofs.

A

Steel joist

123
Q

The capacity of a member or framework to resist imposed loads without excessive deflection.

A

Stiffness

124
Q

The actual percentage of elongation (deformation) when a material is stressed. It is measured in fractions of an inch of deformation per inch of original length of the material.

A

Strain

125
Q

Force per unit area that produces a deformation.

A

Stress

126
Q

A masonry unit laid horizontally with its length in the direction of the face of the wall.

A

Stretcher

127
Q

A bracing Column.

A

Strut

128
Q

A simple beam, with one or both ends suspended on a tension member such as a chain, cable, or rod.

A

Suspended beam

129
Q

A hanging load supported from above.

A

130
Q

A pulling or stretching force in line with the axis of the body; the opposite of compression.

A

Tension

131
Q

The tensile connecting members of a truss web.

A

Tie

132
Q

A rod in tension; used to hold parts of a structure together.

A

Tie rod

133
Q

The measurable turning force applied to a structural member.

A

Torque

134
Q

A force tending to twist a structural member.

A

Torsion

135
Q

A beam that typically carries a load around a large opening or over an area in order to avoid intervening columns.

A

Transfer beam

136
Q

The manner in which a load is spread from the point of application to the ground.

A

Transmission

137
Q

Externally braced structure.

A

Tube construction

138
Q

The highest load that a member or structure can sustain before failure occurs.

A

Ultimate strength

139
Q

A rectangular truss with very rigid corner bracing.

A

Vierendeel truss

140
Q

A wedge shaped block whose converging sides radiate from a center, forming an element of an arch or vaulted ceiling.

A

Voussoir

141
Q

The group of struts, ties, and panel points in a truss.

A

Web

142
Q

Cast in place concrete that unites the rods projecting from the precast sections.

A

Wet joint

143
Q

A single continuous vertical wall of masonry units (one masonry unit in thickness).

A

Wythe