Osiris was known as the lord and judge of the underworld. The myth of Osiris.
The goddess Isis was Osiris’ wife
Osiris’ and Isis’ hawk-headed son god. Who represents the pharaohs while they are alive
Earliest understanding of Anubis was a destroyer God But then becomes a gate keeper figure, guards the entrance to the afterlife and is largely in charge of administering the judgement of the dead (The jackal-headed guide of the dead). He is also the God of embalmers (process of mummification)
Maat is the goddess of truth and order. The idea of nature being reliable is called Ma’at. Natural law and human ethics are one. The feather of Ma’at (which represents the goddess maat) is weighed against the heart at the time of judgement.
Carried out by embalming priests who were associated with Anubis.The essence of corpse mummification is dehydration. It begins with the washing of the corpse (delayed decay and signified purity/rebirth). After, the extraction of the organs however the Heart was left in the body, believed that thinking occurred in the heart so they would need it to travel into the afterlife. Then they dried out the body with natron (chemical made of salt). The corpse was packed full of sweet smelling resin and salt to fill the body and oil/perfumes and finally it was wrapped in linen and adorned with amulets. Often buried with jewels or Shabti (servant statues for the afterlife)
-Canopic jars- held the organs were buried with the mummy
The founding prophet of Zoroastrianism was Zoroaster. The Avesta (scripture) gives no indication of when he lived and reigned.
Define Ahura Mazda (Zoroastrian)
Cosmos in conflict between Ahura Mazda-good (the wise lord) and Angra Mainyu-ultimate evil (/Ahirman). Often called dualistic however there is a discrepancy between power, Ahura Mazda will prevail he is much more powerful (goodness will triumph)
Define Dakhma (Zoroastrian)
The tower of silence. first, there is a Preparation for death, then the cleaning the body and then the Transmission of the body to the charnel ground (dakhma). The dakhma is a building in which the dead body is exposed to vultures. Earth and fire were sacred to Zoroastrians so in order to avoid pollution, the body was placed in the dakhma.
Define Fravshi (Zoroastrian)
Humans are assisted in their life choices through the good offices of a powerful class of beings called the Fravashi. Every person or divinity or created thing in the universe has its own Fravashi, a higher spiritual double that, for humans, serves as conscience, moral guide, and benefactor. It is the divine voice that warns of evil, protects, chastises, or praises the individual. The purity and goodness of the Fravashi are never affected by the person’s thoughts or deeds and a person prospers by supplicating and honoring them throughout life. Upon death, the person’s soul continues on to face its fate, and the Fravashi departs to live on in the celestial realm
Explain the Egyptian view of the soul
The person was a complex combination of four material and immaterial aspects (the physical body with a focus on the heart): immaterial entities (souls) ba (animating soul; leaves body at death) and ka (life force, continues to remain with a dead person). The material aspects are the living body (khet) and the corpse (khat) and the body prepared for eternal life throug mummification (sah). They also believed that the heart, not the brain, was the seat of the mind and made a person good or evil.
explain the three textual primary sources for our understanding of Egyptian views of death
- Pyramid texts- hieroglyphic inscriptions scribbled on the walls in certain pyramids (c. 2500 BCE). 3 possible destinations for a dead ruler 1) Live eternally among the heaven dwelling gods (in the stars) 2) Live with the sun god Ra and join him is in cyclical journey across the sky 3) Dwell eternally in the underworld kingdom of the lord Osiris (became primary afterlife goal by 1500 BCE)
- Coffin texts (c. 2000 BCE). Democratization of the afterlife and Spells carved o the inside and lids of coffins
- “Going out into the day” texts (c. 1550 BCE). Book of collected spells. Available to anyone to put in their coffin. Emphasis on judgement and eternal life in the kingdom of Osiris. Commonly translated as Egyptian book of the dead
Explain death in the Epic of Gilgamesh
Unlike the Egyptian death traditions (paradise where all your needs are fulfilled, the land of Osiris is a utopian afterlife), Mesopotamian traditions is locative, the dead are buried in the ground because that’s where the underworld is
Gligamesh- amoral, very powerful and takes what he wants from people. Befriends an individual named ankidoo and he tames gilgamesh. Another god gives ankidoo the plague and he dies. When Gilgamesh’s friend dies he mourns for him. He realizes he cannot face death in the same way his friend did. So he seeks to discover the fruits of immortality, finds the “Noah” of Mesopotamia and retrieves the fruit, however he puts it down and a serpent eats it. Gilgamesh realizes he will not achieve immortality and can only hope to live on in others memories. Gods have eternal life, human beings do not. This story creates the distinction between them.
Upon death, the person becomes bones and dust.
Explain the Babylonian funeral practice
Upon death bones returned to the earth/clay of which they were made and the ghost remained in memory of the god who was slain to create man. There is no idea of a soul, the spirit comes into existence at death and was simply the spiritualized aspect of the dead person
that could receive offerings, be called upon to assist the family if treated with respect, or, if angered or neglected, bring harm to them. Families would make food and drink offerings to the dead so they would not become lost or unhappy. Proper burial was important because the tomb was the entrance to the land of the dead. The shrouded body was placed directly in the earth, a tomb or a cave (never burned or left unburied). There was no hope in afterlife, it was gloomy, The dead continued to serve the Gods as they had in life
Explain Zoroastrian funerals
The earth and fire are sacred so the body could not be burned or just buried in the earth cause this would be pollution. the body had to be purified, and only handled by professional corpse handlers. The body was laid somewhere where it was exposed to vultures and could be bleached by the sun. The tower of silence was developed (flat roofed, open air funerary towers). Later the bleached bones would be buried to await resurrection.
explain the divisions of the underworld in Greek thought
The afterlife was known asHadesand was a grey world ruled by the Lord of the Dead, also known as Hades. Within this misty realm, however, were different planes of existence the dead could inhabit. If they had lived a good life and were remembered by the living they could enjoy the sunny pleasures of Elysium; if they were wicked then they fell into the darker pits of Tartarus while, if they were forgotten, they wandered eternally in the bleakness of the land of Hades
Consider early human perspectives on death
It appears that even neanderthal graves were intentional. careful burials existed among early humans at least 50,000 years ago, the companions of the Neanderthal took great care to dig him a grave and protect his body from scavengers. Pollen samples from several flower species have been found to be arranged around the dead at a burial site in the zagros mountains
consider what constitutes a burial
1) there is a pit or structure that contains the body.
2) Evidence of something out of the ordinary (i.e., grave goods- tools,)
3) The skeleton is fully articulated (all pieces present and articulated in a certain way)