Chapter 2 Examing The Project Life Cycle And The Organization Flashcards Preview

PMP Key Terms > Chapter 2 Examing The Project Life Cycle And The Organization > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Examing The Project Life Cycle And The Organization Deck (24):

Composite structure

An organizational structure that uses a blend of the functional, matrix, and projectiles organizations to operate and manage projects.


Cultural norm

The accepted practices, culture, ideas, vision, and nature of an organization.


Fast tracking

A schedule-compression technique that allows phases to overlap in order to compress the schedule and finish the job faster. Fast tracking does increase project risk.


Functional managers

The managers of the permanent staff in each organizational department, line of business, or function such as sales,finance, and technology. Project managers and functional managers interact on project decisions that affect functions, projects, and operations.


Functional organizations

Entities that have a clear division regarding business units and their associated responsibilities. Project managers in functional organizations have little power and report to the functional managers. This is an organization that groups staff according to their expertise -- for example, sales, marketing, finance, and information technology. Project managers in functional structures report to functional managers, and the project team exists within one department.


Interactive relationships of project phases

Ideal for projects like research. The next phase of the project is not planned until the current phase of the project is underway. The direction of the project can change based on the current work in the project, Mae
Rite conditions, or as more information is discovered.


Kill point

An opportunity to halt the project based on project performance in the previous phase. Kill points typically come at the end of a project phase and are also known as phase gates.


Matrix structure

An organization that groups staff by function but openly shares resources on project teams throughout the organization. Project managers in a matrix structure share the power with functional management. There are three types of matrix structures: weak, balanced, and strong to describe the amount of authority for the pm.


Operations management

Operations managers deal directly with the income-generating products or services the company provides. Projects often affect the core business, so these managers are stakeholders in the project.


Overlapping relationship of phases

Allow project phases to overlap to compress the project duration. This is also known as fast tracking.


Portfolio management review board

A collection of organizational decisions makers, usually executives, that review proposed projects and programs for their value and return on investment for the organization.


Product life cycle

The unique life, and support of the thing a project creates. A product life cycle is separate from the project life cycle.


Program manager

Coordinates the efforts of multiple projects working together in the program. Programs are comprised of projects, so it makes sense that the program manager would be a stakeholder in each of the projects within the program.


Project customer/end user

The person or group that will use the project deliverable. In some instances, a project may have many different customers.


Project governance

Defines the rule of a project; it's up to the project manager to enforce the project governance to ensure the projects's ability to reach its objectives. The project management plan defines the project governance and how the project manager, the project team, and the organization will follow the rules and policies within the project.


Project life cycle

Unique to each project and comprised of phases of work. Project life cycles typically create a milestone and allow subsequent phases to begin.


Project management office (PMO)

A stakeholder of the project because it supports the project managers and is responsible for the project's success. PMOs typically provide administrative support, training for the project managers, resource management for the project team and project staffing, and centralized communication.


Project management team

People on the project team that are involved with managing the project.


Project manager

The person accountable for managing the project and guiding the team through the project phases to completion.


Project sponsor

Authorizes the project. This person or group ensures that the project manager has the necessary resources, including monies, to get the work done. The project sponsor is someone within the performing organization who has the power to authorize and sanction the project work and who is ultimately accountable for the project's success.


Project team

The collection of individuals that will work together to ensure the success of the project. The project manager works with the project team to guide, schedule, and oversee the project work. The project team completes the project work.


Projectiles structure

Grouping employees, collocates or not, by activities on a particular project. The project manager in a projectiles structure may have complete, or very close to complete, power over the project team.


Sellers and business parteners

Vendors, contractors, and business partners that help projects achieve their objectives. These business partners can affect the project's success and are considered stakeholders in the project.


Sequential relationship of phases

Each phase of a project relies on the completion of the previous phase before it can begin.