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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Mental Health and Mental Illness Deck (85)
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Some of the harmful effects of stigma toward those with mental health issues include:

•Discrimination at work or school
•Difficulty finding housing
•Bullying, physical violence or harassment
•Health insurance that doesn't adequately cover a person's mental health dysfunction/disorder
•Instilling self-doubt regarding ability to succeed in certain challenges and perceiving that there is nothing that can help
•Further isolation from friends, family, and colleagues.


Mental health and mental illness are not specific entities but rather they exist on a continuum. The mental health continuum is?

dynamic and ever-shifting, ranging from mild to moderate to severe to psychosis


The groundbreaking Report of the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 1999) defines mental health as successful performance of?

mental functions, resulting in the ability to engage in productive activities, enjoy fulfilling relationships, and adapt to change and cope with adversity.


Mental health is from early childhood until death

“the springboard of thinking and communication skills, learning, emotional growth, resilience, and self-esteem”


Mental health is a state of well-being in which individuals are able to realize their?

abilities within the normal stresses of life and function productively within their personal lives as well as contribute to their community


According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI, 2011) mental illnesses are medical conditions that affect a person's?

thinking, feeling, mood, ability to relate to others, and daily functioning. Basically, mental illness can be seen as the result of a chain of events that include flawed biological, psychological, social, and cultural processes. However, mental illnesses are treatable, and individuals can experience relief from their symptoms with treatment and support.


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The DSM is the manual that classifies mental disorders and is considered the “bible” for mental health workers (e.g., psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, psychologists, and others who plan care for people experiencing mental distress/dysfunction). The DSM focuses on?

research and clinical observation when constructing diagnostic categories for a discrete mental disorder.


Attributes of mental health

* ability to love and experience joy
* capacity to deal with conflicting emotions
* ability to live without (undue) fear, guilt, anxiety
* ability to take responsibility for one's own actions
* ability to control one's own behavior
* think clearly (problem solve, use good judgment, reason logically, reach insightful conclusions, be creative)
* relate to to others (form relationships, have close, loving adaptive relationships, experience empathy towards others, manage interpersonal conflict constructively)
* attain self defined spirituality
* negotiate each developmental task
* ability to work and be productive
* maintain a healthy self concept and self value
* ability to play and laugh
* accurate appraisal of reality


The World Health Organization declared that 4 of the 10 leading causes of disability in the United States and other developed countries are?

mental health disorders


all human behavior lies somewhere along a continuum of?

mental health and mental illness


One myth is that to be mentally ill is? Another misconception is that to be mentally healthy, a person must be?

- One myth is that to be mentally ill is to be different and odd.
- Another misconception is that to be mentally healthy, a person must be logical and rational. All of us dream “irrational” dreams at night, and “irrational” emotions not only are universal human experiences but also are essential to a fulfilling life.


Psychiatry's definition of normal mental health changes over time and reflects changes in?

cultural norms, society's expectations and values, professional biases, individual differences, and even the political climate of the time.


A characteristic of mental health that is increasingly being promoted is the concept of?



Resiliency is the ability to?

Recover from or adjust easily to misfortune and change. Resiliency is closely associated with the process of adapting and helps people facing tragedy, loss, trauma, and severe stress


Being resilient does not mean that people are unaffected by stressors. It means that rather than falling victim to the negative emotions, resilient people recognize the?

feelings, readily deal with them, and learn from the experience given time


some important aspects of mental health with those of specific mental disorders. These aspects include degree of

(1) happiness, (2) control over behavior, (3) appraisal of reality, (4) effectiveness in work, (5) healthy self-concept, (6) satisfying relationships, and (7) effective coping strategies.


Epidemiology is the quantitative study of the distribution of disorders in human populations. Once the distribution of mental disorders has been determined quantitatively, epidemiologists can identify?

high-risk groups and high-risk factors. Study of these high-risk factors may lead to important clues about the etiology of various mental disorders.


Clinical epidemiology is a broad field that addresses the outcomes of people with illnesses who are seen by providers of clinical care. Studies use?

traditional epidemiological methods and are conducted in groups that are usually defined by illness or symptoms, or by diagnostic procedures or treatments given for the illness or symptoms.


The prevalence rate is the proportion of a population with a mental disorder at a given time. Kessler and colleagues (2005) latest study of the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders and concluded in their survey that about half of Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM disorder sometime in their life, with the first onset in?

childhood or adolescence. It is important to note that many individuals have more than one mental disorder at a time. For example, some people diagnosed with a depressive disorder may also have a coexisting anxiety disorder. Therefore some people have dual diagnoses (coexisting disorders).


Many factors can affect the severity and progress of a mental illness, biologically based or otherwise, and these same factors can affect a “normal” person's mental health as well. Some of these factors include?

available support systems, family influences, developmental events, cultural or subcultural beliefs and values, health practices, and negative influences impinging on an individual's life. If possible, these influences need to be evaluated and factored into an individual's plan of care.


Affects men and women equally; may appear earlier in men than in women

Schizophrenia 2.2 million


Women affected twice as much as men (12.4 million women; 6.4 million men); depressive disorders may appear earlier in life in those born in recent decades compared with past; often co-occurs with anxiety and substance abuse

Any affective (mood) disorder; includes major depression, dysthymic disorder, and bipolar disorder
18.8 million


Leading cause of disability in the United States and established economies worldwide; nearly twice as many women (6.5%) as men (3.3%) suffer from a major depressive disorder every year

Major depressive disorder
9.9 million


Affects men and women equally

Bipolar affective disorder
2.3 million


Anxiety disorders; includes panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias

19.1 million

Anxiety disorders frequently co-occur with depressive disorders, eating disorders, and/or substance abuse


Panic disorder

2.4 million

Typically develops in adolescence or early adulthood; about one in three people with panic disorder develops agoraphobia


Obsessive-compulsive disorder

3.3 million

First symptoms begin in childhood or adolescence



5.2 million

Can develop at any time; approximately 30% of Vietnam veterans experienced PTSD after the war; percentage high among first responders to 9/11/01 terrorist attacks


Generalized anxiety disorder

4 million

Can begin across life cycle; risk is highest between childhood and middle age


Social phobia

5.3 million

Typically begins in childhood or adolescence