Flashcards in Chapter 2- Section 1&2 Quiz Deck (27):
Causes of the Age of Exploration
The search for wealth.
The Renaissance awoken a spirit of discovery and innovation in Europe.
Goals of early explorers:
English, Dutch, and French- Find a passage to Asia.
Portuguese- Find a water route around Africa to India.
New France- based on fish and fur trading.
Spanish- based largely on the mining of gold and silver.
Sailors used this to calculate their location based on the position of the sun and stars in relation to the horizon.
Let sailors know at any time which direction was north.
A new type of ship that was light and fast and highly maneuverable. It had a rear rudder and a lateen sail.
The first country to launch large-scale voyages of exploration. Prince Henry (The Navigator) established a court for navigators and others interested in exploration.
Became the first European to attempt to sail around the southern tip of Africa.
Vasco de Gama
The first European to reach India by sailing around the Cape of Good Hope.
Claimed Brazil for Portugal.
Italian sailor who believed he had reached the Asian islands known as the Indies when he reached the Caribbean islands.
Explorer that concluded that the land discovered by Columbus was not part of Asia, but a new land.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
First European to lead an expedition that reached the Pacific Ocean.
His crew was the first to circumnavigate, or sail around the globe.
Believed he had reached Asia but had instead reached the Atlantic coast of what is now Canada.
Sir Francis Drake
An English sea captain who was the first to successfully circumnavigate the globe.
Spanish colonization of the America's resulted in the deaths of millions of Native Americans from overwork, epidemic diseases (smallpox), and mistreatment on encomiendas. This resulted in planters turning to African slaves who were immune to European diseases.
A Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztec Empire with the help of some Native Americans because the Aztecs were unpopular with those they had conquered.
Moctezuma (the second)
Aztec emperor at the time of the Spanish arrival in Mexico.
Led an expedition to Peru and conquered the Inca Empire.
Officials chosen by the Spanish king to rule large areas of his American holdings.
Samuel de Champlain
Dutch colony that later became New York City after the English took control.
English colony in Virginia settled by people intending to make their fortunes by finding gold and silver.
English colony started by the Pilgrims.
French and Indian War
A conflict in North America between the French and British Empires. (Each side had their own alliances with various Native Americans.)