Chapter 20 - Whose Government? Politics, Populists, and Progressives, 1880-1917 Flashcards Preview

AP U.S. History > Chapter 20 - Whose Government? Politics, Populists, and Progressives, 1880-1917 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 20 - Whose Government? Politics, Populists, and Progressives, 1880-1917 Deck (36):
1

Mary E. Lease

Populist political advocate and leader of the temperance and women's suffrage movements

2

William Jennings Bryan

dominant Populist force who was the Democratic presidential candidate three times

3

Theodore Roosevelt

vice president during McKinley's second term who was sworn in as the 26th president after his assassination

4

Robert La Follette

Republican governor of Wisconsin (1901-1905) who promoted the Wisconsin Idea

5

Louis Brandeis

lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court

6

W.E.B. Du Bois

African American sociologist and civil rights activist

7

Eugene V. Debs

socialist union leader and founding member of the IWW

8

Progressive Era

era between the end of Reconstruction and the beginning of World War I; four goals - to clean up politics, limit the power of big business, reduce poverty, promote social justice

9

"waving the bloody shirt"

referred to politicians who brought up old animosities from the Civil War era that should have been set aside

10

Gilded Age

name for the Progressive Era that refers to the corruption and stagnancy of politics at the time

11

Pendleton Act (1883)

established nonpartisan Civil Service Commission to fill federal jobs by examination

12

Mugwumps

branch of reform-minded Republicans who left the party in 1884 to support Democratic presidential candidate Grover Cleveland

13

Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)

forbade anticompetitive business activities, requiring federal investigation of trusts and companies operating in violation of the act

14

Lodge Bill (1890)

proposed that whenever 100 citizens in a district appealed for intervention, a bipartisan federal board could investigate and set the rightful winner (not passed)

15

Omaha Platform (1892)

statement by Populists calling for stronger government to protect ordinary Americans

16

free silver

policy of loosening the money supply by expanding federal coinage to include silver and gold

17

Williams v. Mississippi

1898 Supreme Court ruling that allowed states to impose poll taxes and literacy tests

18

"Solid South"

post-Reconstruction goal of almost complete electoral control of the South by the Democratic Party

19

Populism

a political movement that sought to represent the interests of ordinary people

20

Lochner v. New York

1905 Supreme Court ruling that New York State could not limit bakers' workday to ten hours because that violated bakers' rights to make contracts

21

William McKinley

25th president whose victory was widely understood as a triumph for business

22

Newlands Reclamation Act (1902)

allowed the federal government to sell public lands to raise money for irrigation projects that expanded agriculture on arid lands

23

William Howard Taft

27th president

24

Wisconsin Idea

policy promoted by Robert La Follette for greater government intervention in the economy with reliance on experts for policy recommendations

25

recall

voting to remove unpopular politicians from office

26

referendum

voting directly on a proposed law (rather than leaving it in the hands of legislators)

27

National Child Labor Committee

recorded brutal working conditions in mines and mills and attempted to change them

28

Muller v. Oregon

1908 Supreme Court decision that upheld an Oregon law limiting women's workday to ten hours

29

talented tenth

term used by W.E.B. Du Bois for the top 10% of educated African Americans, whom he called on to develop new strategies to advocate for civil rights

30

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

organization founded in 1910 as a vehicle for advocating equal rights for African Americans (especially through the courts)

31

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

umbrella union and radical political group founded in 1905 that was dedicated to organizing unskilled workers to oppose capitalism

32

New Nationalism

Theodore Roosevelt's proposal that promoted government intervention to enhance public welfare

33

Woodrow Wilson

Democratic 28th president

34

Federal Reserve Act (1913)

gave the nation a banking system that was more resistant to economic crises

35

Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)

law that strengthened federal definitions of "monopoly" and gave more power to the Justice Department to pursue antitrust cases

36

Ida Tarbell

muckraker who exposed the ills of Standard Oil

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