Flashcards in Chapter 21 Deck (15)
What 3 things does your immune system defend against?
Pathogens, toxins and cancer cells
How does sweat and secretions from the sebaceous glands help to defend?
Maintains the skin at a pH too low for pathogens to survive
How do tears and saliva help to defend against pathogens?
They contain the enzyme lysozyme which digests pathogens
How does mucus released from epithelial cell defend against pathogens?
It traps micro organisms stopping them reaching the lungs
What chemical is released from mast cells during an inflammatory response?
What effect does histamine have when released during an inflammatory response?
Causes vasodilation and increased permeability of the blood vessels
During an inflammatory response the increased blood flow and release of cytokines causes the accumulation of what?
Antimicrobial proteins, clotting elements and phagocytes
What stimulates phagocytosis?
Phagocytes recognise on the surface of pathogen a surface antigen
What do phagocytes do?
Engulfs the pathogen into the cell
What is the pathogen trapped in inside the phagocyte?
What cell organelle contains the digestive enzymes in a phagocyte?
What process do natural killer cells stimulate?
How is apoptosis carried out?
The viral infected cell is made to produce self destructive enzymes
What do phagocytes and natural killer cells produce and stimulate?
Cytokines which stimulate specific immune response