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Higher Human Biology Unit 4 > Chapter 21 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 21 Deck (15)
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1

What 3 things does your immune system defend against?

Pathogens, toxins and cancer cells

2

How does sweat and secretions from the sebaceous glands help to defend?

Maintains the skin at a pH too low for pathogens to survive

3

How do tears and saliva help to defend against pathogens?

They contain the enzyme lysozyme which digests pathogens

4

How does mucus released from epithelial cell defend against pathogens?

It traps micro organisms stopping them reaching the lungs

5

What chemical is released from mast cells during an inflammatory response?

Histamine

6

What effect does histamine have when released during an inflammatory response?

Causes vasodilation and increased permeability of the blood vessels

7

During an inflammatory response the increased blood flow and release of cytokines causes the accumulation of what?

Antimicrobial proteins, clotting elements and phagocytes

8

What stimulates phagocytosis?

Phagocytes recognise on the surface of pathogen a surface antigen

9

What do phagocytes do?

Engulfs the pathogen into the cell

10

What is the pathogen trapped in inside the phagocyte?

Vacuole

11

What cell organelle contains the digestive enzymes in a phagocyte?

Lysosomes

12

What process do natural killer cells stimulate?

Apoptosis

13

How is apoptosis carried out?

The viral infected cell is made to produce self destructive enzymes

14

What do phagocytes and natural killer cells produce and stimulate?

Cytokines which stimulate specific immune response

15

What type of cells provide physical defence against pathogens?

Epithelial cells