Flashcards in Chapter 22 - The Respiratory System Deck (80)
Functions of the Respiratory System
Gas exchange between the air and blood. Conduction of air to exchange surfaces. Protection of respiratory surfaces. Sound production. Olfaction. pH regulation, CO2 determines the pH.
Stages of Respiration
1. Pulmonary Ventilation: air is being moved in and out of the lungs.
2. External Respiration: exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and the lungs
3. Transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood.
4. Internal Respiration: exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and the body tissues
5. Cellular Respiration: Utilization of O2 by the cells and the production of CO2 by the cells.
the site of gas exchange which involves the respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.
All of the other passageways in the system
Moistens air, filters air, resonating chamber, and olfactory receptors.
A muscular tube in the throat region. It is used by the respiratory and digestive system. Divided into 3 regions. The nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx.
Lies immediately behind the nasal cavity. It is lined by pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. Contains the auditory tubes, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the uvula.
Extends from the soft palate to the laryngopharynx. Mostly stratified squamous epithelium. The mouth opens to here, the lingual tonsils are on the base of the tongue, and the palatine tonsils are on the side walls.
A structure that connects the laryngopharynx to the trachea. It provides an open airway, acts as a switching mechanism and aids in voice production.
A U-shaped shield. It consists of hyaline cartilage. it doesn't completely circumvent the larynx. The location of the Adam's apple.
Makes a complete ring around the larynx. Made of hyaline cartilage
A leaf-shaped cartilage that guards the opening to the larynx. It helps keep the airway open and is part of the voice production.
The opening to the larynx. It has 2 horizontal folds of a mucus membrane.
Two sets. False, the top two folds, and true, the bottom two folds.
Inflammation of the mucus membrane that covers the folds.
About 11 centimeters and all hyaline cartilage. The beginning of the lower respiratory tract. Lined with stratified squamous epithelium above the trachea and gives way to pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
Function of the trachea's C-shaped rings
They keep the trachea from collapsing and allows it to expand when the esophagus expands with food.
An abdominal thrust where air, and thus any trapped material, is forced out of the trachea.
Two branches, left and right. Each supplies one lung.
Also called lobar bronchi. Each supplies a lobe. 3 on the right, the superior, middle, and inferior. 2 on the left, superior and inferior
Also called segmental bronchi. Each supplies a specific bronchopulmonary segment.
Lack cartilage. This is the beginning of the alveolar system, where respiration takes place. In the respiratory bronchioles, there is now ciliated columnar epithelium
The respiratory structures that branch into the alveolar ducts leading to the sacs where gas exchange occurs.
The functional unit of the lung. It is simple squamous epithelium and has free roaming macrophages. It has septal cells which produce surfactant a material that rejects water.
Formed by the alveolar wall and the capillaries where gas exchange occurs by simple diffusion. O2 comes from the alveolus to the blood, and CO2 leaves the blood and goes into the alveolus.
Regulates the smooth muscle layer surrounding the bronchioles. The sympathetic division causes the smooth muscle to relax and the parasympathetic division causes smooth muscle to contract.
Lungs and Pleural Membranes
A large amounts of connective tissue with elastic fibers helps give the lungs their elastic recoil
3 on the right, 2 on the left. Left ones are smaller because the heart is located there.
A double layered serous membrane. Two layers:
- parietal: lines the thoracic wall and mediastinum. It goes around the heart and lungs
- visceral: also called the pulmonary pleura. It covers the external lung surface.