Chapter 22 - The Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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1

Functions of the Respiratory System

Gas exchange between the air and blood. Conduction of air to exchange surfaces. Protection of respiratory surfaces. Sound production. Olfaction. pH regulation, CO2 determines the pH.

2

Stages of Respiration

1. Pulmonary Ventilation: air is being moved in and out of the lungs.
2. External Respiration: exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and the lungs
3. Transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood.
4. Internal Respiration: exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and the body tissues
5. Cellular Respiration: Utilization of O2 by the cells and the production of CO2 by the cells.

3

Respiratory Zone

the site of gas exchange which involves the respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.

4

Conducting Zone

All of the other passageways in the system

5

Nasal Cavity

Moistens air, filters air, resonating chamber, and olfactory receptors.

6

The Pharynx

A muscular tube in the throat region. It is used by the respiratory and digestive system. Divided into 3 regions. The nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx.

7

Nasopharynx

Lies immediately behind the nasal cavity. It is lined by pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. Contains the auditory tubes, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the uvula.

8

Oropharynx

Extends from the soft palate to the laryngopharynx. Mostly stratified squamous epithelium. The mouth opens to here, the lingual tonsils are on the base of the tongue, and the palatine tonsils are on the side walls.

9

The Larynx

A structure that connects the laryngopharynx to the trachea. It provides an open airway, acts as a switching mechanism and aids in voice production.

10

Thyroid Cartilage

A U-shaped shield. It consists of hyaline cartilage. it doesn't completely circumvent the larynx. The location of the Adam's apple.

11

Cricoid Cartilage

Makes a complete ring around the larynx. Made of hyaline cartilage

12

Epiglottis

A leaf-shaped cartilage that guards the opening to the larynx. It helps keep the airway open and is part of the voice production.

13

Glottis

The opening to the larynx. It has 2 horizontal folds of a mucus membrane.

14

Vocal Cords

Two sets. False, the top two folds, and true, the bottom two folds.

15

Laryngitis

Inflammation of the mucus membrane that covers the folds.

16

Trachea

About 11 centimeters and all hyaline cartilage. The beginning of the lower respiratory tract. Lined with stratified squamous epithelium above the trachea and gives way to pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.

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Function of the trachea's C-shaped rings

They keep the trachea from collapsing and allows it to expand when the esophagus expands with food.

18

Heimlich Maneuver

An abdominal thrust where air, and thus any trapped material, is forced out of the trachea.

19

Primary Bronchi

Two branches, left and right. Each supplies one lung.

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Secondary Bronchi

Also called lobar bronchi. Each supplies a lobe. 3 on the right, the superior, middle, and inferior. 2 on the left, superior and inferior

21

Tertiary Bronchi

Also called segmental bronchi. Each supplies a specific bronchopulmonary segment.

22

Respiratory Structures

Lack cartilage. This is the beginning of the alveolar system, where respiration takes place. In the respiratory bronchioles, there is now ciliated columnar epithelium

23

Bronchioles

The respiratory structures that branch into the alveolar ducts leading to the sacs where gas exchange occurs.

24

Alveolus

The functional unit of the lung. It is simple squamous epithelium and has free roaming macrophages. It has septal cells which produce surfactant a material that rejects water.

25

Respiratory Membrane

Formed by the alveolar wall and the capillaries where gas exchange occurs by simple diffusion. O2 comes from the alveolus to the blood, and CO2 leaves the blood and goes into the alveolus.

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ANS Regulation

Regulates the smooth muscle layer surrounding the bronchioles. The sympathetic division causes the smooth muscle to relax and the parasympathetic division causes smooth muscle to contract.

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Lungs and Pleural Membranes

A large amounts of connective tissue with elastic fibers helps give the lungs their elastic recoil

28

Lung Lobes

3 on the right, 2 on the left. Left ones are smaller because the heart is located there.

29

Pleura

A double layered serous membrane. Two layers:
- parietal: lines the thoracic wall and mediastinum. It goes around the heart and lungs
- visceral: also called the pulmonary pleura. It covers the external lung surface.

30

Pleural Fluid

Fluid in the pleural cavity between the two layers. It's secreted for lubrication, and allows for the lungs to glide over the thorax